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The Red Scare
Transcript of The Red Scare
Sacco and Vanzetti trial
1925 KKK march on Washington D.C.
In August of 1925, the KKK marched in the streets of Washington D.C.
Over 60,000 members marched
The march was to intimidate their enemies, showing how they have increased their numbers since the South has lost the war.
Since 1920, the KKK has declined from having over 4 million members to under ten thousand.
-Labor unrest was widespread following WWI.
- A lot of returning soldiers were unable to find jobs leading to widespread unemployment throughout the nation.
- The rising popularity of unions lead to all kinds of conflicts between companies and employees.
- Workers often resorted to strikes to get what they wanted.
Attorney General Mitchell Palmer and The Palmer Raids
Boston Police Strike
Steel Mill Strike of 1919
-The Boston Police Strike occurred on September 9th, 1919. The police force went on strike in an effort to get increased wages and better working conditions.
-The strike occurred after the Police force was denied the right to unionize by the city's police commissioner, despite the overwhelming majority voting in favor of unionization.
- Over 80% of the city's police force participated in the strike.
- As a result robberies and riots were rampant throughout the city, forcing immediate action by Mayor Andrew J. Peters and Governor Calvin Coolidge who called in the State militia to stomp out the strike.
- The troops ended up killing two people after firing into a mob.
- The strike was a failure and the police involved were fired.
-Eventually however, police were eventually granted the right to form unions.
Coal Miners Strike of November 19th, 1919
-The steel mill strike of 1919 took place between September 21st, 1919 and January 8th, 1920.
- Workers demanded an eight hour work day to be made the new standard instead of the existing twelve hour work day, along with increased wages and safer working conditions.
- Over 370,00 workers participated in the strike, over 95% of the counties steel workers.
- The strike soon lead to police involvement, which in turn resulted in the deaths of several workers and the injuries of many more.
- Although the strike was largely a failure it had several small impacts like slightly improved working conditions and and marginally increased wages.
Numerous attacks on Socialists and Communists around 1920.
Attempt to arrest any suspected radical leftists in the United States.
Led by A. General Mitchell Palmer.
-On November 19th, 1919 president of the United mine workers John L Lewis, lead over 400,000 coal miners in a over six week strike.
-The workers demanded increased wages and better working conditions.
-The strike ended on December 11th,1919 when president Woodrow Wilson and attorney general Palmer granted the miners a 14% pay increase and improvements in health and safety standards.
-John L Lewis later went on to become the president of the united Mine Workers of America from 1920-1960.
-The Sacco and Vanzetti Trail took place during the Red Scare. This was the fear of the spread of communism.
-Sacco and Vanzetti were anarchists who opposed the idea of government.
-They were wrongfully blamed for a armed robbery which resulted in two deaths. They were taken into custody when they were spotted near the abandoned getaway vehicle.
-While in court they were questioned why they were armed , their defense brought light to their anarchist views.
-Despite their personal accounts and witnesses of where they were they are still convicted of the robbery and sentenced death.
- It was largely believed that they were sentence only because of their political beliefs an un justly exucuted.
-When their sentence was carried out, it was met with uproar including riots in several cities.
-After much investigation they were proclaimed innocent in 1977.