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Working with Children

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on 7 January 2014

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Transcript of Working with Children

Working with Children
Is Play Therapy an effective way
of working with children?
"Play Therapy is based upon the
fact that play is the child's natural
medium of self-expression. It is an
opportunity which is given to the
child to 'play out' his feelings and
problems just as, in certain types
of adult therapy, an individual
'talks out' his difficulties."
Virginia Axline
Play Therapy originates as far back as the eighteenth century when Rousseau, in his book ‘Emile’ wrote about the importance of observing play as a way of understanding children. The first documented case, describing the therapeutic use of play, was in 1909 when Sigmund Freud published his work 'Little Hans', who was a five-year-old child who was suffering from a
simple phobia. (Wilson et al)
Hermine Hug-Hellmuth
Hermine Hug-Hellmuth
(1871–1924) was an Austrian psychoanalyst. He is regarded
as the first psychoanalyst
practicing with children
Anna Freud (1895 - 1982)
held a deep belief in the complexity of a child's development; she saw play therapy as a means to understand and
heal the child.
Freud felt that the child needed to understand why they had these thoughts and feelings before any form of personal change
could occur.
Anna Freud
Melanie Klein
(1882 - 1960)
saw the child playing as the equivalent of an adult's free associations; she used it as a vehicle to the child's unconscious.
Klein focussed on the child's feelings of abandonment.
Melanie Klein
Margaret Lowenfeld
Margaret Lowenfeld
(1890 - 1973)
developed the Lowenfeld World Technique which was influenced by HG Wells' book, Floor Games.
This led to the development of Sand Tray Therapy.
Virginia Axline
Virgina Axline (1911 - 1988)
was a pioneer in the use of
Play Therapy.
Today's practice is largely based on her work. These principles were based on Carl Rogers'
Person Centred Approach
What is Play Therapy?
Sand Tray
Arts and Crafts
Role Play
Story Telling
The Theory behind Play Therapy
What is Play Therapy helpful for?
Play Therapy can be used to bring great relief to children suffering from a number of issues. The child who is
given opportunities to communicate tends to gain more control over their own behaviour and feel less at the mercy of these events. (Wilson et al. 2002)
And now, the fun bit!
What are the benefits of Play Therapy?
Reduces anxiety about traumatic events in a child's life
Facilitates a child's expression of feelings
promotes self-confidence and a sense of competence
Develops a sense of trust in self and others
Defines healthy boundaries
Creates or enhances healthy bonding in relationships
Enhances creativity and playfulness
Promotes appropriate behaviour
The Science Bit
Neuroscience is the study of the nervous system, which includes the brain, the spinal cord and networks of sensory nerve cells called neurons throughout the body.
Thank you for listening
History of Play Therapy
(Person Centred Approach)
(Psychodynamic Approach)
"Play Therapy helps children understand muddled feelings and upsetting events that they haven't had the chance to sort out properly. Rather than having to explain what is troubling them, as adult therapy usually expects, children use play to communicate at their own level and at the their own pace, without feeling interrogated or threatened."
(British Association of
Play Therapists)
"You can discover more about a person in an hour of play than in a year of conversation."
Illness or Bereavement
Attachment Disorder
In Conclusion
Statistics by Play Therapy UK indicate that up to 83% of children undertaking play therapy or therapeutic play experience a
positive change
“By playing out these feelings he brings them to the surface,
gets them out in the open,
faces them, learns to control them,
or abandons them.”

(Virginia Axline, 1989)

(1) Must develop a warm and friendly relationship with the child.
(2) Accepts the child as she or he is.
(3) Establishes a feeling of permission in the relationship so that the child feels free to express his or her feelings completely.
(4) Is alert to recognise the feelings the child is expressing and reflects these feelings back in such a manner that the child gains insight into his/her behaviour.
(5) Maintains a deep respect for the child’s ability to solve his/her problems and gives the child the opportunity to do so. The responsibility to make choices and to institute change is the child’s.
(6) Does not attempt to direct the child’s actions or conversations in any manner. The child leads the way, the therapist follows.
(7) Does not hurry the therapy along. It is a gradual process and must be recognised as such by the therapist.
(8) Only establishes those limitations necessary to anchor the therapy to the world of reality and to make the child aware of his/her responsibility in the relationship.
Family Conflicts
Garry Landreth
Garry Landreth is a leading authority in child therapy. He runs the Centre for Play Therapy in Texas and has written more than 150 Play Therapy books, articles and videos.
"In Play Therapy toys are viewed as the child's words and play as the child's language - a language of activity." (Garry Landreth)
Is therapy effective in children with Social, Emotional and Behavioural disorders?
What is SEBD?
What conditions are included under SEBD?
What causes SEBD?
Therapies used in SEBD
Therapy effectiveness in SEBD

The term EBD is a broad label which has been used to group a range of more specific difficulties, such as behaviour which interferes with a child’s own learning or the learning of their peers; signs of emotional turbulence (e.g. unusual tearfulness, withdrawal from social situations); and difficulties in forming and
maintaining relationships.
Evans et al (2003)

• Being withdrawn or isolated
• Displaying a disruptive and disturbing nature
• Being hyperactive and lacking concentration
• Having immature social skills including communication
• Presenting challenging behaviours arising from other complex special needs

The term behavioural, emotional and social difficulties (BESD) covers a wide range of special educational needs. This includes children and young people with emotional disorders like the following.
Attachment Disorder
Attachment disorder a behavioural disorder caused by the lack of an emotionally secure attachment to a caregiver in the first two years of life, characterised by an inability to form healthy relationships. Other common symptoms, especially in children, are poor impulse control, chronic anger, and antisocial tendencies.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a group of behavioural symptoms that include inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness.
Conduct Disorder
Conduct disorder (CD) is a group of behavioural problems where a child is aggressive, antisocial and defiant to a much greater degree than expected for your child’s age.
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a disorder where children have disruptive and oppositional behaviour that is particularly directed towards authority figures, such as parents or teachers.
Autism is a lifelong developmental disability that affects how a person communicates with, and relates to, other people. It also affects how they make sense of the world around them.
What causes SEBD?
Communication is not just what people say to each other with words. It is also body language, facial expression and the tone of voice. All of these things combined are communication. Many people with communication difficulties may find it hard to understand the meaning you put into your voice, for example the tone of your voice. They may find it difficult to understand the messages we give to each other without speaking, such as the expression we have on our face or a gesture like waving, pointing or shrugging our shoulders.
What therapies are used in SEBD?
Person Centred Counselling
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
Group/family therapy
Equine therapy
Drama/Art/Music therapy
Play/Sand therapy

Is therapy effective for children with SEBD?
Adults Survivors of Domestic Abuse
Questions and Answers
Welsh Women’s Aid define domestic abuse as "the actual or threatened physical, emotional, psychological, sexual or financial abuse of a woman by a partner, family member or someone with whom there is, or has been, a close relationship. This abuse also relates to the perpetrator allowing or causing a child to witness, or be at risk of witnessing, domestic abuse." [November 2013]
Answer: In over 90% of domestic abuse incidents the child is present or in an adjacent room.
Answer: According to the 2009-2010 in the British Crime Survey 73% of men carried out domestic abuse against women.
Answer: 30%, this figure includes domestic abuse getting worse or starting.
Answer: Domestic abuse accounts for 25% of all recorded violent crime.
Quiz Time.....
Answer: The answer is 2.5 women in this room. Though statistically: One in four women will be affected by domestic abuse during their lifetime.

From research by the World Health Organisation up to 1 in 3 women in the world experience violence from an intimate partner (2008).

Answer: Two women a week are killed by their partner or
Answer: 54% of all rapes are committed by the women's partner or ex-partner.
Answer: 75% of children on the Child Protection register live in households where domestic abuse occurs.
Answer: Domestic Violence Crime and Victims Act 2004

This Act includes a range of measures – most of which were implemented on or before 1st July 2007 - that aim to increase the safety of domestic violence survivors and link some criminal and civil remedies.
The Act includes:
• Making common assault an arrestable offence.
• Extension of restraining orders to any offence.
• Extending availability of injunctions to same sex couples and those who have never cohabited.
• Breach of non-molestation order is now a criminal offence
• New offence of causing death of a child or vulnerable adult
• Statutory Domestic Violence homicide reviews for adults
• Victims’ Code of Practice and Commissioner for Victims and Witnesses. The Code should ensure that domestic violence survivors are given clear information about the whole criminal justice process from the reporting of an incident through to prosecution and sentencing and inform of what support is available.

What is out there for Adult Survivors of Domestic Abuse…
Not a lot!
What is recognised?
Research...A 'Clump' of abuse.
When I Grow Up will I be like my mummy or daddy?
Issues of an adult survivor
What issues do you think an adult survivor may have?
What is out there
to help us move on?

What is available...
...Feminist advocacy
and counselling...
Right or wrong?
What helps?
Equality and Power
Full transcript