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Gender (in)equality in Central Asia

Main obstacles to the achievement of gender equality in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan
by

Adriana D

on 2 August 2013

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Transcript of Gender (in)equality in Central Asia

Gender (in)equality in Central Asia
Main obstacles to the achievement of gender equality in Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyz Republic, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan
Kazakhstan
In the public sector:

Less than 1 out of 4 parliamentarians is a woman, and there are 3 female ministers in office out of a total of 19.

In the private sector:

25% of firms have a female top manager.
decision-making
Women are more slightly more vulnerable to unemployment: 6,2% of them are unemployed, against 4,6% of men.

The wage gap improves annually and Kazakhstan has one of the narrowest gender wage gaps in the region, with women earning on average 77% of men's wages.

Their participation to the workforce is lower than men's: 74% of women, 81% of men.
employment
NGOs report that 1 out of 4 women are victim of domestic violence in Kazakhstan.

Kazakhstan is major destination country for both labour and sex trafficking victims from Uzbekistan, Mongolia, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.

Child marriage continues to happen, with 7% of girls being married before the legal age of 18.

gender-based violence
Uzbekistan
Turkmenistan
Tajikistan
Kyrgyz Republic
There is no law to ensure protection of victims of domestic violence and prosecution of offenders.
Human trafficking and forced labour remains a serious problem in Uzbekistan.

Reports highlight that women, children and men are forced into labour during cotton harvest in order to reach state-imposed quotas.
Although maternal care, child mortality and contraceptive prevalence have reached satisfactory levels, there are concerns regarding forced sterilisation of mothers to help curb population growth.
Same-sex relationships between men are criminalised in Uzbekistan and are punishable by up to 3 years' imprisonment.
The gender wage gap is significant: women were earning less than 40% of the income earned by men in 2010.

Their participation in the labour force is limited: 51% of women work, against 78% of men.
Only 19,2% of Parliamentary seats are held by women, and there are only 2 out of a total of 28 female ministers.

In the private sector, 11% of firms have a female top manager.
employment
decision-making
same-sex relationships
healthcare
gender and the law
forced labour
There is no specific law on gender equality in Turkmenistan, and no quotas are currently employed to lift up the proportion of women in the public sector.
Turkmenistan is a major source country for girls and women subjected to sex trafficking, the majority of which are trafficked into Turkey.

The government has publicly acknowledged the existence of the problem, but has not so far taken any steps to identify and protect victims.
Progress in reducing maternal and child mortality has been made over recent years, and a National Reproductive Health Strategy was created for 2011-2015.

However, the quality of medical services remains poor: pregnant women are still required to provide their own bedding, supplies and medications.
According to the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry of Turkmenistan, HIV/AIDS cases have not been registered in Turkmenistan.

However, preventive measures have been passed as the government has adopted a National HIV Strategy for 2012-2016.
Most of the women not engaged in the economy are in the reproductive age, running their households and raising children: their share of the employable population is 36,4%.

Women are more vulnerable to unemployment and earn on average 25% less than men.
employment
HIV/AIDS
healthcare
human trafficking
gender and the law
There is no Kyrgyz national structure or agency directly related to gender equality, in spite of discussions about the creation of gender-related machinery in recent years.
One of the greatest challenges to human security and human rights in Kyrgyzstan is the practice of kidnapping for the purpose of forced marriage, with estimates of a yearly 12,000 women being subject to abduction.

This means that at least 35% of all marriages in Kyrgyzstan are concluded as a result of abduction.
Legislation has been recently toughened: offenders now face up to 10 years of imprisonment
but...
the stigma associated with being a victim of bride kidnapping forces many girls and women to marry their abductors
Even though the law states that the minimum age for marriage is 18, over 1 out of ten girls is married before the age of 18.
child marriage
gender and the law
forced abduction for marriage
As of 2012, 23% of Parliamentary seats are held by women, and there are 2, out of a total of 19, female ministers.
decision-making
and...
due to insufficient law enforcement victims are reluctant to seek help.
(http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper)
(http://www.refworld.org/category,COI,,,UZB,51c2f37718,0.html)
(http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper)
(http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper)
(http://www.refworld.org/type,ANNUALREPORT,,,4fe30c8435,0.html)
(http://www.ipu.org/pdf/publications/wmnmap12_en.pdf)
(http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IC.FRM.FEMM.ZS)
(http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.ACTI.FE.ZS)
(http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.ACTI.MA.ZS)
(http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws45.htm )
(http://www.girlsnotbrides.org/where-does-it-happen)
(http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2013/index.htm)
(http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper)
(http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IC.FRM.FEMM.ZS)
(http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SG.GEN.PARL.ZS)
(http://www.ipu.org/pdf/publications/wmnmap12_en.pdf)
(http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.MA.ZS)
(http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.TLF.ACTI.FE.ZS)
(http://www.weforum.org/reports/global-gender-gap-report-2012)
(http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper)
(http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2013/210551.htm)
(http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/docs/co/CEDAW.C.TKM.CO.3-4.pdf)
(http://www.undptkm.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=989&Itemid=43)
(http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/eurpro/moscow/info/publ/turkm_en.pdf)
same-sex relationships
Same-sex sexual relationships between men are illegal, with punishments of up to two years in prison and the possible imposition of an additional two to five year term in a labour camp.
(http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper)
(http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper)
forced abduction for marriage
(http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper)
(http://saynotoviolence.org/around-world/news/new-law-kyrgyzstan-toughens-penalties-bride-kidnapping)
(http://www.girlsnotbrides.org/where-does-it-happen/)
(http://www.ipu.org/parline/reports/2174_E.htm)
(http://www.ipu.org/pdf/publications/wmnmap12_en.pdf)
child marriage
The legal age for marriage is 18 for both girls and boys, however child marriage remains a common phenomenon:
13% of girls are married before the age of 18, and 1% of them are married before the age of 16.
http://www.girlsnotbrides.org/where-does-it-happen/
gender-based violence
The first ever law on domestic violence was passed in April 2013. This crucial law allows eyewitnesses or third parties to report domestic violence instances. The law also applies to families from marriages that were not officially registered.
(http://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2013/3/tajikistan-moves-towards-a-law-to-prevent-domestic-violence)
healthcare
Tajikistan’s maternal mortality ratio is amongst the highest in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, with 12% of women giving birth without midwifery or skilled health personnel.
(www.unfpa.org/sowmy/resources/docs/main_report/en_SOWMR_Part4.pdf)
education
Despite gender parity being achieved a primary education level, men are twice as likely to pursue university studies: the ratio of female to male tertiary enrollment is of 52% for 2011.
(http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ENR.TERT.FM.ZS)
decision-making
5 out of 34 members of parliament are women, and there is only 1 female minister out of a total of 16.

In 2008, only 12% of firms had a female top manager.
(http://www.ipu.org/parline/reports/2366_E.htm)
(http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IC.FRM.FEMM.ZS)
(http://unfpa.org/webdav/site/eeca/shared/documents/publications/Tajikistan%20English.pdf)
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
Kyrgyz Republic
Kyrgyz Republic
Kyrgyz Republic
Kyrgyz Republic
Kyrgyz Republic
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
Tajikistan
Tajikistan
Tajikistan
Tajikistan
Tajikistan
Full transcript