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Schizophrenia/Psychotic Disorders

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Cameron McPherson

on 2 December 2015

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Transcript of Schizophrenia/Psychotic Disorders

Schizophrenia/Psychotic Disorders...
Schizophrenia:
A brain disorder in which people interpret reality abnormally.
Neuoranatomy:

Neuroimaging became available, researches immediately began to look for distinctive anatomical features. The earliest observations revealed enlargement of the ventricles.
It is only found in minority cases.
People who do not have schizophrenia also have enlargement of ventricles.
It also could be caused by long term use of antipsychotics medication commonly prescribed for schizophrenia.
Neuromaging studies provides evidence of a variety of brain abnormalities in schizophrenia.



Treatment...
Most psychotic disorders are treated with a combination of medications and psychotherapy. (A type of counseling)
THANK YOU!
Created by: Cameron McPherson, Whitney Wade, Hora Willis, Kimberlynn Carter, and Laura Willis


Genetic Factors
Family studies indicate that the closer a person’s genetic relatedness to a person with schizophrenia, the greater likelihood of developing the disorder identical twins (48%) fraternal twins (17%).
Symptoms of Schizophrenia:
Cognitive
: Amnesia, belief that an ordinary event has special and personal meaning, belief that thoughts aren't one's own. Delusion, disorientation, making things up, memory loss, mental confusion, slowness in activity and thought, thought disorder, or false belief of superiority.
Behavioral:
Aggression, agitation, compulsive behavior, excitability, hostility, hyperactivity, nonsense word repetition, repetitive movements, self-harm, social isolation, disorganized behavior, or lack of restraint.





Mood
: Anger, anxiety, apathy, excitement, feeling detached from self, general discontent, inability to feel pleasure, elevated mood, or inappropriate emotional response.



Psychological:
Depression, fear, hallucination, paranoia, persecutory delusion, religious delusion, hearing voices, or mistrust.



Speech:
circumstantial speech, incoherent speech, or rapid and frenzied speaking



Biochemical Factors:
Dopamine Hypothesis
: The idea that Schizophrenia involves an excess of dopamine activity.
Psychological Factors:
Several studies do suggest that the family environment plays role in the development of & recovery from the condition.

Medication...

Thorazine was originally developed in the 1950s as a sedative, when given to a person with schizophrenia were left euphoric and docile, although they had formerly been agitated and corrigible. (Barondes, 2003).

It was the first in a series of Antipsychotic Drugs, which treats schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders and completely changed the way schizophrenia was managed. These medicines do not cure the illnesses but are very effective in managing the most troubling symptoms of psychotic disorders, such as delusions, hallucinations, and thinking problems.

A little about Antipsychotic Drugs...
Before the introduction of antipsychotic drugs, people with schizophrenia often exhibited bizarre symptoms and were sometimes so disruptive and difficult to manage that the only way to protect them was to keep them in hospitals for people with mental disorders, originally called asylums but now are referred to as psychiatric hospitals.
After the introduction of the drugs, the number of people in psychiatric hospitals decreased by more than two thirds.

The drugs made deinstitutionalization of hundreds of thousands of people and gave a major boost to the field of Psychopharmacology, which is the study of the effects on psychological states and symptoms.

These medications are believed to block dopamine receptors in parts of the brain and reduces dopamine activity in these areas.

The effectiveness of these medications led to the dopamine hypothesis, suggesting that schizophrenia may be caused by excess dopamine in the synapse.

Antipsychotic drugs worked well for the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, the negative symptoms of schizophrenia may be related to dopamine underactivity.
Since the different symptoms of schizophrenia need medications that do the opposite of the other is a good example of how medical treatment can have broad psychological effects but not target specific psychological symptoms.


A little more....
Atypical antipsychotics-
newer drugs that affect both dopamine and serotonin systems, blocking both receptors. Atypical work well for both negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Examples- Abilify, Clozaril, Geodon, Invega, Latuda, Risperdal, Saphris, Seroquel, and Zyprexa.
The ability to block serotonin appeared to be useful because the enhanced serotonin activity has been implicated in some of the core difficulties in schizophrenia. Examples- cognitive and perceptual disruptions and mood disturbances.

Atypical antipsychotics:
Conventional or typical Drugs-
the older drugs that only effect the positive symptoms. Examples- Haldol, Thorazine, Loxapine, and Mellaril.
The atypical psychotics are often considered first-line treatments because they have fewer and more tolerable side effects. Some of the medications are available by injection and only need to be taken once or twice a month. For patients this can be easier to keep up with compared to a daily pill.
Like most medications there are side effects. They can be sufficiently unpleasant that some people “go off their meds,” preferring their symptoms to the drugs. One of the side effects that often occur with long-term use is tardive dyskinesia- a condition of in involuntary movements of the face, mouth, and extremities.
People often need to take another medication to treat the unwanted side effects of the conventional antipsychotic drugs.
Side effect of the newer drugs tend to be different and sometimes milder than those of the older antipsychotics. It is for this reason that the atypical antipsychotics are now usually the front-line treatments for schizophrenia.

Psychotherapy:
the treatment of mental disorder by psychological rather than medical means. Various types of psychotherapy, including individual, group, and family therapy, may be used to help support the person with a psychotic disorder.
Many questions arise when dealing with the type of treatment of a mental or psychological disorder like: Which is more effective? Is the combination of psychological and medicinal treatments better than either by itself?
Many studies compared the result of each by itself and the combination of these approaches and came to the conclusion that it really depends on the particular problem being considered.
For schizophrenia, researchers found that medication is more effective than psychological treatment and so is considered a necessary part of treatment.
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