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Chapter 32: The Modern Assault

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Christopher Litten

on 2 November 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 32: The Modern Assault

Chapter 32
The Modern Assault
1900-1950

The New Physics
Quantum physics
Max Planck
light was a form of radiant energy
Albert Einstein
relationship between matter and energy.
Theory of relativity.
Werner Heisenberg
principle of uncertainty
Major Events
1900 Max Planck announces quantum theory
1903 Henry Ford introduces the Model A
1905 Albert Einstein announces theory of relativity
1910 Bertrand Russell and Alfred North Whitehead publish Principia Mathematica.
1913 Niels Bohr applies quantum theory to atomic structure.

Early Twentieth-Century Poetry
Imagists
Language was conceptual and abstract, like modern physics.
Rejected self-indulgent sentiment.
Sought a more concentrated style.
Used abstraction.
Ezra Pound, Amy Lowell, and Hilda Doolittle
Ezra Pound
“In a Station of the Metro”
The apparition of these faces in the crowd;
Petals on a wet, black bough.

“The Bathtub”
As a bathtub lined with white porcelain,
When the hot water gives out or goes tepid,
So is the slow cooling of our chivalrous passion,
O my much praised but-not-altogether-satisfactory lady.
Robert Frost and Lyric Poetry
Worked within classic lyric poetry tradition.
New England poet.
Gained popularity in England first.
Wrote metered verse.
Avoided dense allusions and learned allusions.
Used plain speech.
“The Road Not Taken”
Twentieth-Century Art
Rejected art traditions.
Art is “stripped down”
Focused on an emotional experience.
Inspired by non-Western cultures
primitivism
abstraction
experimentation
Picasso and Cubism
Spanish
Worked in every major art style.
Reduced colors at first to blue or rose.
Abandoned Western modes of pictorial representation.
Influenced by Cezanne and African and Oceanic sculpture.
Analytic Cubism
Picasso
“Man with a Violin”
Multiplicity of viewpoints.
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
1907
Based on traditional nude group
Used multiple viewpoints.
Used Egyptian fresco technique.
First step toward cubism.
Georges Braque
Explored synthetic cubism
Used collages.
Focuses on visual and tactile textures.
Alexander Archipenko
Woman Combing Her Hair

Female form uses negative space for her head.
Example of synthetic cubism.
Futurism
Italian art movement.
Art is affected by industry, technology, and urban life.
Automobiles and airplanes inspired artists.
Umberto Boccioni
Unique Forms of Continuity in Space
Giacomo Balla
Streetlight
Marcel Duchamp
Nude Descending a Staircase, #2
Influenced by stop-action photography.
Matisse and Fauvism
Color is principle feature.
Fauve means “wild beast”
Bold spontaneity.
Scorned representational art.
Schematic simplicity and fluid design.
The Dance
Abstract Sculpture
Constantin Brancusi

Born in Romania.
Studied under Rodin.
Influenced by fertility figures and African tribal sculpture.
Bird in Space
Nonobjective Art
1909-1914 artists attempted to purge art of recognizable subject matter.
Wasily Kandinsky Kasimir Malevich, and Piet Mondrian.
Theosophy: blend of Eastern and Western religions.
Piet Mondrian, Horizontal Tree
Kasimir Malevich,
Suprematist Composition: White on White
http://www.moma.org/collection/object.php?object_id=79766
http://www.moma.org/audio_file/audio_file/36/502._Les_Demoiselles_d_Avignon._1907.mp3
http://www.understandingduchamp.com/
Piet Mondrian
Dutch
Canvas stripped of recognizable subject matter.
Three primary colors: red, yellow, blue.
Three Values: white, gray, and black.
Constructivism
Russian origins.
Used geometric abstraction in social enterprise.
“artist engineers”
Liubov Popova and Anton Mikhailovich Lavinskii.
Lavinskii
Early Twentieth-Century Architecture
Frank Lloyd Wright
Combined steel and glass with aesthetic principles of Oriental architecture.
Used natural materials and blended with setting and structure.
Interconnected interior and exterior space.
Introduced the Prairie School of architecture.
Falling Water
Early Twentieth-Century Architecture
Bauhaus
1919 Walter Gropius
Fusing technology of the machine age with the purest principles of functional design.
flat roofs
smooth facades
cubic shapes
open floor plans
functional furniture
International Style
Marriage of structural steel, ferro-concrete, and sheet glass.
Resembled a Mondrian painting.
Le Corbusier
Early Twentieth-Century Music
Polytonal
Polyrhythmic
Arnold Schoenberg
Wrote music punctuated by dissonant and unfamiliar chords.
Treated all twelve notes of the chromatic scale equally.
Introduced the serial technique.
Early Twentieth-Century Music
Igor Stravinsky
Russian composer
Influential composer
Russian folk tales provided inspiration.
Fascinated by ancient and tribal folk customs
“Rite of Spring” creates protests.
Dance Chreography
Vaslav Nijinksky choreographed “Prelude à ‘L’Après-midi d’un faun’”
Also choreographed The Rite of Spring
Dance expressed “the hidden primitive in man.”
Martha Graham also rejected traditional dance positions.
http://www.moma.org/collection/object.php?object_id=79124
http://www.moma.org/collection/object.php?object_id=78335
http://www.moma.org/collection/object.php?object_id=80385
Malevich: MOMA
Kandinsky: MOMA
Matisse: MOMA
http://www.keepingscore.org/sites/default/files/swf/stravinsky/full
Rite of Spring: Keeping Score Web Page
Still Life on a Table
Composition with Large Red Plane, Yellow, Black, Gray, and Blue
Full transcript