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Smart QuadCopter

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by

Fahim Atallah

on 22 July 2014

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Transcript of Smart QuadCopter

We
1- buy all the components
2- must know how this components work together to make the quad work
3- connecting the components together
4- building the controller
5- writing the code
6- adding many application as we wish
Smart QuadCopter
Presented By :
1. Abanoub Mondy Gabra.
2. Abanoub Nashaat Abd EL-Mallak .
3. Anrdrew Atef Faragallah .
4. Arteen Isaac Rayad .
5. Fahim Atallah Fahim .
6. Hani Gerges Aziz .
7. Karim Mahmoud Habib .
8. Michael Mounir Hallem Georgy.
9. Nabil Adel Habib.

Supervised By:
Dr. Samir Muhamed Abdel Moety.
Dr. Abdullah Mahmoud Elewi.
Introduction
Hardware
Control
Communicaton
Application
QuadCopter
Two ways to build a quadcopter
Easy way Hard way
using a RC controller
1- Buy the Quad frame
2- Buy the RC controller
3- connect the quad to the RC controller
4- Enjoy the flight !
But we missing two important things :
1- The fun part of building a quad
2- We learned Nothing !!
So this way can not be the way to our graduation project.

Therefore we choose
The HARD WAY
QuadCopter
Hardware

Frame
Propellers
Motors
ESC
Battery
Charger
Monitor
Arduino
X-Bee
&
Shields
ArduIMU
Is the body of the quad that holds all the components together
The material of our frame is from Carbon Fiber because it's rigid and vibration absorbent
Is the distance between the center of one motor to the other motor in the same arm.
This distance determined the diameter of the propellers to avoid clashing by each other.
In each motor we mounted a propeller.
2 propellers are tilted to right and the other 2 propellers are tilted to the left.
the diameters of the propellers are depend on the Motor-to-Motor distance.
in out project we use the 10 Inchs length propeller
Powered by a Dc source (11.1 V).
it's lighter than other motors and more powerful for carrying weights.
it gives high RPM, so it's more efficient.
We can control the speed of the motor as we wish
it has 3 wires connected to the ESC to vary the speed of the motor
Used to control an electric motor's speed.
Control the speed by sending a PWM input signal to the motor from 1 ms to 2 ms period.
1 ms means that the motor is turned off, 1.5 ms means that the motor runs at it's half speed, 2 ms means that the motor runs at full speed.
Supply all components with the required volt.
We use lithium polymer ( LiPo ) battery because it's lighter and high current battery ( 4.5 A ).
It has 3 cells, each of 3.7 volt which should give us 11.1 V
Able to recharge to a full capacity
used to recharge the LiPo battery to full capacity.
if the battery has 3 cells, then we MUST use a charger with 3 indicators, one to each cell.
if we use a charger with only one indicator, it means that the charger with recharge only one cell to full capacity and the other 2 cells won't recharge and the battery will explode or damage.
This module works as battery voltage tester and alarm at the same time.
because the voltage level is critical in the quadcopter when it in air, so we need a tester to tell us the voltage level.
when the battery cell is under certain voltage level, then it will gives a load alarm to attract your attention that the battery need to recharge.
we can adjust the certain voltage level at any value.
Is the basic control board in our project, takes inputs from switches and sensors or even from the computer directly to control the motors in the quad.
One of the amazing things about arduino is that the arduino can be stand-alone or can communicate with software running on computer.
It's compatible with our main software program >> LabVIEW.
Why Arduino ?
1- Simple : simplified version of C++.

2- Inexpensive.


Another amazing things about Arduino is that we can attach alot of arduino shields on the main arduino board ( wi-fi shield , X-Bee shield , motor shields , LCD shields ).
What is Control ?
PID
proportional
Integral
Derivative
Types of control
In this way we are doing everything step by step:
Arduino Software
LabVIEW
Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench
Consist of :-
a- Front Panal
b- Block Diagram
LIFA
LabVIEW Interface for Arduino
Wireless
Communication

Wi-Fi
ZigBee
Bluetooth
6lowpan
the IEEE committee standard 802.11b .
the band 2.4 GHz .
It has a maximum data rate of 11 M b/s.
The maximum range is 38 meter indoors, and 140 meters outdoors.
latency below 100 msec.
the IEEE committee standard 802.15.4.
the bands of 915 MHz and 2.4 GHz.
The data rate is 250 Kbits/s.
the range is 100 meters.
latency of less than 100 msec.
Band width of 2.4 GHz.
a range of bluetooth is 10 meters.
the data rates of 1 Mbps.
6LoWPAN is a low power wireless personal area networks protocol.
IEEE 802.15.4 protocol stack
The definition of the network layers is based on the OSI model (Open System Interconnection model) .


It have three layers:

The physical layer
The MAC layer
Higher layers

ZigBee
Characteristics
Low cost
Low power consumption
Low data rate
Flexible protocol design suitable for many applications
Application
Lighting controls
Heating control
Wireless smoke
Home security
Remote control of home
Topologies
Quadcopter software
a) front panel
B) block diagram
Init
set number of servo
configure servo
close of arduino
analog read
temperature reading
Initialize Joystick
Acquire Input Data
Unbundle By Name
servo write
close joystick
analog read
temperature read
1- Open Loop :
Types of Control
2- Closed Loop :
Types of Control
Theory of Quadcopter
Definitoin:
A quadcopter, also called a quadrotor, that is lifted and propelled by four rotors.
Quadcopters use 4 propellers, 2 clockwise (CW) and 2 Anti-clockwise (ACW).
The variation of RPM ( Revolution Per Minute ) to control lift and torque.
Quad VS Heli
There ar several advantage of quadcopter over helicopter :
1- Mechanism Simplicity.
2- the use of four rotors allows each individual rotor to have a smaller diameter than the equivalent helicopter rotor.
Block diagram of
our Quadcopter
Applications
Image Processing
More Efficiency
More Accuracy
Types of Image Processing
1- Analog
2- Digital
Block Diagram of Image Processing
Applications
Satellite
Military
Medical
The aim of this applications
1- It is to present different digital image processing algorithms using LabView and IMAQ vision toolbox.
2- IMAQ vision toolbox presents a complete set of digital
Image processing and acquisition functions that improve the efficiency of the projects.
3- Reduce the programming effort of the users obtaining better results in shorter time

What is an Image ?

An image is treated as a matrix of MxN elements.

Each element of the digitized image
(pixel) has a value that corresponds to the brightness of the point in the captured scene.
Image Type : Choose from the following values
The types of Important Images
Binary Image
Grayscale Image
Color Image
(RGB)
Wireless camera
Wireless camera system
This is a 2.4GHz_ 4CH wireless mini camera.


Easy installation and operation is suitable for home security.

The frequency of the camera is fixed, by default is 2414 Mhz.
Features :
1- Synchronous video and audio transmission.

2- Mini size, light weight, portable, easy for installation.
3- Real-time transmitter

4- 4 channels for optional: 1CH: 2414 MHz (default); 2CH: 2432 MHz; 3CH: 2450 MHz; 4CH: 2468 MHz.
5- Transmission range: 100m without any obstacles in open area and around 30 m indoors

3- Run at any OS.

4- doesn't need a programmer.

5- very speed processing time.

6- large storing memory.
X-Bee is the main wireless communication module.

We choose the X-Bee over other wireless module because of it's suitable price, range and speed.
X-Bee required only 3.3 V.
Large range ( up to 100 meter outdoor ).
required adapter board to connect to the computer and shield to connect to the arduino.
IMU is Inerial Measure Unit , The basic function of this module is to make the quad stable in air.

Consist of 3 axis accelerometer and 3 axis gyroscope and a compass.

We can attach a GPS module to the IMU.

The sensors calculate the Roll,Pitch and Yaw to make the quad stable is air.
Signal Processing
Wireless transmission and
reception communication system
Basic Block diagram of wireless
Tx/Rx Communication system
Types of data transmission
Simplex
Half-Duplex
Full-Duplex
Modulator
is a device that performs modulation.
Types of Modulation:
1- Analog Modulation.
2- Digital Modulation.

m – Modulation Index. The ratio of Vm/Vc.
Definition of Modulation:

modulation is the process of conveying a message signal
is a one-way only communication standard. Broadcast information, or data, can only travel in one direction, include radio broadcasting, television broadcasting.
Simplex
Half-Duplex
Half-duplex data transmission means that data can be transmitted in both directions on a signal carrier, but not at the same time. For example, credit card
Full-duplex
data can flow in both directions at the same time. for example: cell phone.
Metal detection
BFO
Beat-frequency oscillator
search oscillator
reference oscillator
GSM
Designed for global market, SIM900 is a quad
band GSM/GPRS module that works on frequencies GSM.
900MHz, DCS 1800MHz and PCS 1900MHz.
GSM
functional diagram of SIM900:

The GSM baseband engine
Flash
The GSM radio frequency part
The antenna interface
The other interfaces

GPS
How the Global Positioning System Works
the gps connected with satellite equipped with atomic clocks, transmit radio signals that contain their exact location , time, and other information.
A GPS receiver needs only three satellites to plot roughs, 2D position, which will not be very accurate. Ideally, four or more.
The three segments of GPS are the space, control, and user
formula: distance = velocity x time.
Three segment of GPS
JAMMER
Cell phone jammer

consist of three circuits:
RF amplifier
Voltage controlled oscillator
Tuning circuit
Cell Phone Jammer can block all kinds of mobile phone’s ringing sound at all places.
have a range of about 50 to 80 feet and will only effectively jam your immediate surrounding
Jamming devices overpower the cell phone by transmitting a signal on the same frequency and at a high enough power
Cell phone jammer
ZigBee Nodes
Coordinators are the most capable of the three node types. There is exactly one coordinator in each network.
Routers act as intermediate nodes, relaying data from other devices .
End Devices They have sufficient functionality to talk to their coordinators or rot
Antennas
Comparison between X-Bee Series 1 & Series 2
X-Bee Shield
Configuration of x bee
Step 1
Com Port Number & Test / Query
Step 2
PAN ID & number high & number low
Radios which share a PAN ID can communicate with other x-bee.
Step 3
Set one of x-bee as end device
Step 4
baud rate = 9600
Step 5
Configuring the Coordinator
Step 6
• In the DH parameter write the numbers you noted from the SH parameter in the cordinator.
• In the DL parameter write the numbers you noted from the SL parameter in the cordinator.

Step 7
press "Write" button and the configuration will be uploaded on your module.
Program Of Image Processing
Temperature Sensor
&
Smoke Sensor
Temperature sensor
It measures the Temperature of air.
The sensor's working base is the voltage that’s read across the diode.
When the difference in voltage is amplified, the device generates an analogue signal that’s proportional to the temperature.
Smoke Sensor
Is a device that senses smoke, typically as an indicator of fire.

Generally connected to a fire alarm control system.

This module can sense the Smoke as digital ( On or Off ) or analog ( the amount of the smoke ).
It consist of 4 pins
1) VCC (5 V)
2) GND (ground)
3) Aout (Analog output)
4) Dout (Digital output)

Features of smoke sensor
1. Wide detecting scope.
2. Fast response and High sensitivity.
3. Stable and long life.
4. Simple drive circuit.
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