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Alexander Romanov

on 21 September 2014

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• Determining Training Needs
• Developing Training Program
• Conducting Class Room Training
• Providing Individual Training Through Distance Learning
• Conducting On-the- Job Training
• Ensuring Transfer of Training, Putting It All Together, Evaluation of Training Results
• On The Job: Applied Case Study: Training at Pal’s Sudden Service
• Focus on the Ethics of Using Role play in Employee Training

Chapter 8
Low ratings on a particular dimension for most employees may indicate that additnal training in that dimension is needed.

Conversely, if most employees score high on a particular dimension, relatively little training time is needed.
Performance Appraisal Scores
The training needs assessment process
Chapter 8
If the results of the organizational analysis indicate that a positive organizational climate for training exist, the exist, the next step is to conduct a task analysis. The purpost of a task analysis is to use the job analysis methods to identify the tasks performed by each employee, the conditions under which these tasks are performed, and the competencies (knowledge, skills, abilities) needed to perform the tasks under the identified conditions.

The most common job analysis methods used for this purpost include interviews,obserbations, and task inventories.
Task Analysis
Person analysis
Is based on the recognition that not every employee needs further training for every task performed.
Another common approach to determine training needs is to design and administer a survey that asks employees what knowledge and skills they believe should be included in future training.
(Kroehnert, 2000)
-the purpose of needs analysis is to determine the types of training, if any, that are needed in an organization. There are three types of needs analysis.


Establish goals and objectives
Economic analysis
Personpower analysis and planning
Climate and altitude surveys
Resource analysis
Task inventories
Performance appraisals
Job descriptions
Performance Appraisals
Skill and knowledge testing
Critical incidents
The third method of needs analysis is the interview, which is usually done with a selected number of employees. Interviews are not used as extensively as surveys, but they can yield even more in-depth answers to question about training needs.

(Patton & Pratt, 2002)
The fourth way to determine training needs is with a
skill test
or a
knowledge test.
Skill and Knowledge Tests
Although not a commonly used method, it will be discussed here because it is relatively easy to use, especially if a proper jot analysis is available.
Critical Incidents
Establishing Goals and Objectives
Once training needs have been determined, the first step in developing a training program is to establish the goals and objectives for the training.
Training goals and objectives should concretely sate the following (Mager, 1997):

What learners are expected to do.
The conditions under which they are expected to do it.
The level at which they are expected to do it.
Motivating Employees
For a training Program to be effective, employees must be motivated to attend training, perform well in training, and apply their training jobs
Motivating Employees to Attend Training
The most obvious way to “motivate” employees to attend training is to require them to attend training “on the clock.”
Strategies to motivate employees to attend training:
• Relate the training to an employee’s immediate job.
• Make the training interesting.
• Increase employee buy-in. Baldwin, Magjuka, and Loher (1991) found that employees given a choice about training programs were more motivated than employees not given a choice. Employees given a choice, but then not given the program they chose, were the least motivated.
• Provide incentives. Common incentives for attending training include certificates, money, promotion opportunities, and college credit.
• Provide food.
• Reduce the stress associated with attending.

Motivating Employees to Perform Well in Training
Providing Incentives for Learning.
Employees motivated to learn perform better in training than their less motivated counterparts (Mathieu, TRannenbaum, & Salas, 1992).

Employees will be more motivated to learn when the training program is interesting.

Another essential aspect of motivating employees to learn is to provide feedback.

Motivating Employees to Use Their Training on the Job
Once employees have gathered knowledge and skill from a training program, it is essential that they apply their new knowledge and skills on the job itself. Perhaps the factor that plays the biggest role in employee motivation to apply training is the atmosphere set by management. That is, employees are most likely to apply their new knowledge and skill if supervisors encourage and reward them to do so.
Another important factor in motivating employees is the extent to which they are given the opportunity to apply their skills.
Benson, Finegold, and Mohrman (2004) found that employees who were promoted after receiving a graduate degree (given the chance to use their new knowledge) were less likely to turn over than employees who completed their degrees but were not promoted.
The use of knowledge and skills learned in training can also be encouraged by having employees set goals.

Choosing the Best Training Method
Once goals and objectives have been established, the next step in developing a training program is to choose the training method that will best accomplish those goals and objectives.

Classroom instruction-commonly called a seminar, lecture, or workshop—is still the most common training method (ASTD, 2007). With this approach, either a member of the training staff of an outside consultant provides training, often in the form of a lecture, to a few or many employees at one time.
Prior to conducting classroom training, several decisions need to be made by an organization.
Initial Decisions
Training seminars can be conducted by a variety of sources including in-house trainers who are employees of the organization, outside trainers who contact with the organization, videotapes, and local universities.
Who Will Conduct the Training?
Training can be offered on-site or at an off-site location such as a hotel, university, or conference center.
Where Will the Training Be Held?
Determining the length of a training session is an interesting dilemma. From a cost-efficiency perspective, it is better to conduct a weeklong training session rather than divide the training into 10 half-day sessions spread over a one-month period. However, from an interest perspective, few employees enjoy attending 40 hours of training a week.
How Long Should the Training Be?
Soft-skills training and technical training are very different types of training.
There is a difference between technical and non technical training.
It takes lots of time and experience to be a really good trainer. Be patient. You will have your fair share of times when you don’t perform well.
Trainers are like wine—they get better over time.
It is very important to have a firm understanding of who is going to be in the training session

Get to know your audience prior to the training.
It is very important that you have a thorough understanding of the material prior to presenting. Review your material prior to the training until you know it inside out. I is one thing to understand material and another to actually teach/present it.

Know the material.
You will quickly lose the credibility of your participants if you provide answers that are not true.

Don’t make up answers
Wear good shoes.

Be prepared.

Use stories and experiences.

Use different formats while presenting.
Adjusting for the Audience
Developing the Training Curriculum
Creating Handouts
Handouts should include the following:
A cover sheet with the title of the training program as well as the date and location in which the raining took place.
A list of goals and objectives.
A schedule for the training (e.g., breaks, ending times).
A biolographical sketch of the trainer.
The notes themselves in outline form, full text, or copies of the PowerPoint slides.
Activity sheets such as personality inventories, free writes, or group activity information.
References and suggestions for further reading.
A form to evaluate the quality of the training program.

Preparing for Classroom Training
Introducing the trainer and the training session

Using Icebreakers and Energizers

Types of icebreakers include:

Delivering the Training Program
Introductions such as asking each trainee to introduce the person next to him or her, or having a scavenger hunt in which trainees are given a list of questions and are asked to mingle with the other trainees to obtain answers to the questions.

Jokes or stories.

Types of icebreakers include:
Activities in which trainees, either individually or in small groups, are given a question or problem to solve.

Open-ended questions to elicit audience response and encourage discussion.

Free writes in which audience members are asked to write about the topic. For example, in a training seminar on sexual harassment, trainees were asked to write about a time when the yeither were harassed or saw another employee being harassed. In a training seminar on dealing with difficult customers, trainees were asked to write about an angry customer they had to deal with and how they handled the situation.


For an icebreaker to be success ful, it must accomplish a goal. The most common goals for icebreakers are to get people to know one another, to get them talking, to wake them up, and to get them thinking about the topic.

Types of icebreakers include:
Length of the Training Session.

If the training session will last only a few hours, the icebreaker should be short—if one is even used. If the training session will last an entire week, time should be spent on introductions and “group bonding” activities.

Length of the Training Session.

Certain types of icebreakers work better with some audiences than they do with others. For example, having a group of trainees introduce themselves by saying their name and trait starting with the first letter of their name is not likely to go over as well with a group of police officers as might with a group of social workers.

Making the Presentation
Make eye contact with the audience
Use gestures effectively.
Don’t read your presentation.
Don’t hide behind the podium.
Use a conversational style.
Be confident.
Speak at a pace that is neither too fast nor too slow.
Avoid swearing, making off-color or offensive remarks, and demeaning other people, groups, or organizations.
Try to make the presentation interesting.
Don’t force humor.
When answering audience questions, repeat the question if the room is large.

Using Case Studies to Apply Knowledge
Once employees have received the information they need through lecture, it is important that they be able to apply what they have learned.

Using Simulation Exercise to Practice New Skills
Whereas case studies are effective in applying knowledge and learning problem-solving skills, simulation exercises allow the trainee to practice newly learned skills.

Practicing Interpersonal Skills through Role Play
Role play allows the trainee to perform necessary interpersonal skills by acting out simulated roles.
Role play is used in many types of training situations, from supervisors practicing performance appraisal reviews to sales clerks taking customer orders.

Increasing Interpersonal Skills through Behavior Modeling
One of the most successful training methods has been behavior modeling. (Taylor, Russ-Eft, & Chan, 2005). Behavior modeling is similar to role play except that trainees role-play ideal behavior rather than the behavior they might normally perform. These behaviors are learning points and are essentially rules to follow in solving the problem.

With this method, employees are provided with media materials for learning the content, as well as with a series of exams that measure what they have learned from them. If employees do not pass the test at the end of each unit, they must reread the material and retake the test until they pass.

Programmed Instruction Using Books, Videos, or Interactive video
Computer-Based or Web-Based Programmed Instruction

Rather than using books and traditional videos for distance learning, many organizations are using
computer-based training
(CBT) and

In this section we will discuss how employees learn through on-the-job training (OJT), an important topic given that some researchers estimate that over 60% of employee training is OJT (Derouin, Parrish, & Salas, 2005).

Also called social learning, modeling is a vitally important method of learning for training in organizations.

Learning by Modeling Others

Learning by Modeling Others

Of course, we do not model everyone else’s behavior. Instead, we tent to model behavior of people who are similar to us, who are successful, and who have status.

Characteristics of the Observer

The employee must pay attention to the behavior of other employees.
All the role models in the world will be unable to effect a behavior change in an employee if the employee pays no attention to the role model.

The employee performs several different jobs within an organization.
Job rotation is especially popular for managerial training because it allows a manager trainee to experience and understand most, if not all, of the jobs within the organization that his subordinates will perform.

Learning through Job Rotation
Learning through Apprentice Training

Apprentice training is used by more than 50,000 people annually and is typically found in crafts and trades such as carpentry and plumbing.
With apprentice training, an individual usually takes 144 hours of formal class work each year and works with an expert for several years to learn a particular trade and perhaps become eligible to join a trade union.

Learning through Coaching and Mentoring
Coaching is another popular method of training new employees and typically takes one of two forms: experienced employees working with new employees and professional coaches who work with all employees.



Mentoring is a form of coaching that has recently received much attention.

When an organization spends time and money on training, it expects that the knowledge will be transferred to the job. Unfortunately, this is often no the case (Broad, 200). Research in learning has indicated that the more similar the training situation is to be the actual job situation, the more effective training will be.

In other words, the transfer of training will be greater.

Because training programs can be costly in both time and money, it is essential that they evaluated to determine if they can be improved, should continue to be offered, and whether it significantly increases performance of affects positive changes in behavior (Kirkpatrick, 2000).

There are many ways to evaluate the effectiveness of a training program, and two factors differentiate are the various methods. The first involves practicality, and the second is concerned with experimental rigor.
Evaluation Criteria
Content Validity
Employee Reactions.
Employee Learning
Application of Training
Business Impact
Return on Investment
Research Designs for Evaluation
Organizational Analysis
Organizational analysis
is to determine those organization factors that either facilitate or inhibit training effectiveness
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