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HIV/AIDS Presentation

An Infectious Disease Presentation for Science and Society (SCI*106).
by

Joe Petrowski

on 28 July 2010

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Transcript of HIV/AIDS Presentation

HIV-AIDS Background to HIV/AIDS HIV is an abbreviation for
H-Human
I-Immunodeficiency
V-Virus
AIDS is an abbreviation for
A-Acquired
I-Immuno
D-Deficiency
S-Syndrome
AIDS is the final stage
of the HIV infection.
People who have reached the final
stage have poor immune systems
and are prone to other diseases such as some forms of Cancer.
Symptoms The symptoms for HIV/AIDs can be difficult to understand. Since AIDS begins with the HIV infection it can take up to several years for symptoms to show. Usually, HIV's symptoms do not
become noticed until the infection has
began the final stage (AIDS). This is due to a poor immune system and another virus becomes present and shows its symptoms. However, there are times where there are
earlier indicators of the disease. Acute illnesses like he common cold or flu can occur as soon as 2-4 weeks of HIV exposure, and as long as 10 years. The symptoms of the
flu and common cold are: Fever Headache Tiredness Cough Sore Throat Runny or Stuffy Nose Body Aches Diarrhea and vomiting HIV/AIDS is an infectious disease that a
retrovirus attacks the immune system
and the central nervous systemand
occurs in four different stages. The first stage is called the Primary HIV Infection. This stage lasts several weeks and seroconversion occurs. Seroconversion is when the peripheral blood and the immune system has a significant amount of the HIV virus
and reacts to it by creating HIV antibodies and cytotoxic lymphocytes.
The second stage is called Clinically
Asymptomatic Stage and lasts an
average of about ten years. There are extremely low levels of peripheral
blood drops during this stage, but since HIV
antibodies were produced in the first stage,
antibody tests will still be positive, even
though they are still infected.
The third stage is called
Symptomatic HIV Infection. During this stage the immune system becomes extremely damaged because: The lymph nodes and tissues are overused during the first two stages, HIV becomes more pathogeni and the body cannot keep up replacing the dead T helper cells. After the first two stages, the virus decreases
in activity which decreases the symptoms of
the HIV infection as well. However, once the HIV infection grows to
the final stage (AIDS), symptoms include:
fatigue
diarrhea
nausea
vomiting
fever
chills/night sweats
wasting syndrome



Wasting syndrome is involuntary loss
of more than 10% of body weight. But symptoms may also include: HIV/AIDS is not only a chronic disease,
but a incurable, lethal disease. Cause The human body's immune system uses T-Cells and CD4 cells to prevent infections and diseases and help to remove the viruses out of the body. The HIV virus attacks those cells and the immune system cannot get rid of them (for an unknown reason). The HIV infection uses those cells for reproduction and then destroys them. Without these cells, the immune system becomes very weak and prone to other viruses, bacteria and fungi because the immune system cannot fight back. Over time, so many T-cells and CD 4 cells are killed, the HIV infection progresses to the final stage: AIDS. The HIV particles have an outside layer
full of 72 spikes that are made up of the
proteins gp120 and gp41. The outside layer
has a fatty substance known as viral envelope
or membrane. Below that is another layer
made from the protein p17 called the matrix.
The particles are about .01 microns
(so small that it can only be
seen with an electron microscope).
The protin p24 and the HIV's genetic material (two identical strands of RNA) can be found in the capsid or viral core. Within the core are 3 enzymes that are needed for HIV replication reverse transcriptase, integrase and protease. Transmission HIV can only replicate within a CD4 human
cell. The spikes of the HIV particle gets inserted into the CD4 cell which enables the viral envelopes to fuse with the human
cell's membrane. Everything goes inside the HIV, except the envelope, gets moved into the cell.
Once everything gets relocated, the
viral RNA is converted to DNA by the
HIV enzyme. Next, the DNA arrives at
the cell's nucleus where it is put into
the human DNA by the HIV enzyme
integrase. Once this occurs, the HIV
DNA is referred to as provirus.
Once the provirus is in the cell,
it may not become active
immediately. However, once it
does, it does not know the difference
between the HIV and human genes.
Utilizing human enzymes, the provirus
converts the human genes into
messenger RNA and then that is used
for creating new proteins and enzymes
that have the HIV virus. Epidemiology The earliest known case of HIV in a human was in a
blood sample in 1959 from a man in Kinshasa, Democratic
Republic of the Congo. After careful analyization of the
sample, it was suggested that he contracted it in the late
1940's or early 1950's. It was then discovered in Haiti and then the U.S. in the mid 1970's .There were outbreaks of pneumonia, cancer and other illnesses being reports by doctors in New York and Los Angeles. The doctors mentioned that the viruses were found in male patients that have had sex with other men.


Today, HIV/AIDS is a huge endemic in
Sub-Saharan Africa. There are over 22.4
million (about 2/3 of the global population)
living in the region that are HIV/AIDS positive. Only two years ago, around 1.9 million people became infected with HIV and 1.4 million people died from AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa and 15 million children have lost either both or one of their parents since the beginning of the epidemic. Although HIV/AIDS is a big issue in Africa, it is also a global issue. About 13 million people are living with HIV and every year about 2.7 million MORE people become infected with HIV and 2 million die of AIDS. The HIV virus spreads though body fluids
such as blood, breast milk and sexual fluids.
Certain groups of people, such as sex workers,
men who have unprotected sex with men
and drugs users are at a greater risk.
The HIV virus can also
be transmitted from a
mother to her unborn
child before or after birth. Treatment Almost all of the ways that the HIV virus
can spread can be prevented or treated. Since HIV is a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD),
it can be prevented with the use of a male or female condom.
Also getting HIV tested to know your HIV status can prevent the virus to pass to someone else.
Mother to Child transmission can be treated with medicines.
Drug users can be reached by clinic treatment centers to help become clean.
Health Care workers need to avoid any contaminated blood.
HIV education.
Although there is no cure for AIDS,
there is reliable treatment for HIV positive
patients that is constantly being improved. There are certain guidelines for those
who are infected to follow to help keep
a healthy lifestyle with HIV.
Visit your doctor regularly
Maintain a healthy diet
Excersize
Know when and how to take the HIV medication The medication has multiple names: Anti HIV antiretrovirals HIV antiviral drugs ARVs About the HIV Medication:
There are over 20 approved drugs
Five different groups
They all either stop or slow down the reproduction of the HIV process
Sometimes two need to be taken at the same time (combination therapy)
Sometimes three or more need to be taken at the same time (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy [HAART]) Today, there is not a HIV virus vaccine,
if one were to exist it would prevent
many deaths due to AIDS. Depending on what HIV stage is the treatment can be fairly effective.
According to Scientists, if a HIV postive patient takes the medication
early on, he will be able to increase his life expectancy to 4-13 years. Future Angels in America It is difficult to say what the future reguarding
HIV/AIDS will be. Since scientists not know fully understand it, it is difficult to treat it. However, as technology continues to improve, discoveries may be made and cures can be made. This HBO series and six hour staged
production touches upon the significant
impact that AIDS had in New York in the 1980's.
The stage
production is
extremely
theatrical. Government and non profit funding
are a vital source to continue the
discovery for the cure of HIV/AIDS. And the Red Ribbons will continue
to represent AIDS awareness and drug
prevention for the future reminding people how serious disease this is.



References AIDS.gov [Internet]. Washington (DC): U.S. Government Web site managed by the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.; n.d. [cited 2010 July 25]. Available from: http://aids.gov/.Avert [Internet]. (UK): 2010 July 19. [cited 2010 July 25]. Available from: http://www.avert.org/.Dugdale D C. Medline Plus [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): 2010 July 25. [cited 2010 July 25]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000594.htm.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): 2010 July 25. [cited 2010 July 25]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/. By Joe Petrowski Jr
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