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Harlem Renaissance

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Amber Wilson

on 19 March 2012

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Transcript of Harlem Renaissance

United Negro Improvement Association
Marcus Garvey, a Jamaican native, founds the United Negro Improvement Association, an organization that urges blacks to form their own nation.
1917
The Harlem Renaissance
History
Culture
Political Figures
Geography
You know, New York City: bright lights, big city; the big apple -- take a look!
New York City is made up of 5 buroughs (think like Denver, Englewood, Aurora, etc.).
Brooklyn
Queens
The Bronx
Staten Island
Manhattan
When you think about New York City, you most likely are thinking about Manhattan
Manhattan is made up of several smaller neighborhoods, which each have their own character and claims to fame.
Located on the far north side of Manhattan, Harlem is the birthplace of the Harlem Renaissance
Harlem, a neighborhood in New York City, was the center of the African American political, cultural, and artistic movement in the 1920's and early 1930's.
13th Amendment
Freedom for all slaves! Slavery is officially abolished.
1865
The Great Migration
Between 1890 and 1920, over two million African Americans migrate from the rural South to the industrial North, in hopes of a better life with less discrimination. The largest migration in American history was caused by the 'push' of hardships prevalent in the South–such as segregation, lynching and the economic hopelessness of the sharecropping system–and the 'pull' of opportunity in the North. Plentiful industrial jobs, although sometimes menial, often offered wages three times higher than did jobs in the South. Glowing reports from friends and family already in the North inspired increased migration. While racism, housing shortages and crime often greeted the new arrivals, they also found organizations such as the National Urban League and National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) dedicated to improving the lives of black Americans.
1890 - 1920
NAACP sets up National Office in NYC
The NAACP established its national office in New York City in 1910 and began publishing the official journal of the NAACP, The Crisis.
1910
Jim Crow Laws
The Jim Crow Laws are established throughout the South. The laws legalize and encourage segregation.
1876
"Take The A Train"

You must take the A train
To go to Sugar Hill way up in Harlem

If you miss the A train
You'll find you missed the quickest way to Harlem

Hurry, get on, now it's coming
Listen to those rails a-humming

All aboard, get on the A train
Soon you will be on Sugar Hill in Harlem
New York City
Early 1900's
Impact?
A growing African American middle class developed as a result of improved educational and employment opportunities for African Americans.
W.E.B. Du Bois
Marcus Garvey
Founded NAACP
Authored Several Books
The Philidelphia Negro (1899)
The Souls of Black Folk (1903)
Black Reconstruction (1835)
Black Folk, Then & Now (1939)
"One ever feels his two-ness,--an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings; two warring ideals in one dark body, whose dogged strength alone keeps it from being torn asunder"
"Either America will destroy ignorance or ignorance will destroy the United States."
Observed problems of race in American culture, which he defined as the problem of the twentieth century
Advocated for the "talented tenth"
This was the idea that a small percentage of the African American population who were exceptionally skilled should be designated and educated as artistic and cultural leaders. He proposed absolute equality for the "talented tenth" and technical training for the black masses.
Believed that artistic and literary work could be used as a form of propaganda to help combat racial stereotypes and gain new respect for the race
"A people without the knowledge of their past history, origin and culture is like a tree without roots."
Advocated for the "Back to Africa" movement
Because of widespread racism and violence toward African Americans, Garvey believed that the only true solution to the problems was to reclaim their African heritage and go back to their homeland. The intent of the movement was for those of African ancestry to "redeem" Africa and for the European colonial powers to leave it.
"Unite all people of African ancestry of the world to one great body to establish a country and absolute government of their own. "
Founded UNIA
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Universal Negro Improvement Association
Music
Art
Literature
Common themes: alienation, marginality, the use of folk material, the use of the blues tradition, the problems of writing for an elite audience.
Harlem Renaissance (HR) is the name given to the period from the end of World War I and through the middle of the 1930s Depression, during which a group of talented African-American writers produced a sizable body of literature in the four prominent genres of poetry, fiction, drama, and essay.
The notion of "twoness" , a divided awareness of one's identity, was introduced by W.E.B. Du Bois
I've known rivers:
I've known rivers ancient as the world and older than the
flow of human blood in human veins.

My soul has grown deep like the rivers.

I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young.
I built my hut near the Congo and it lulled me to sleep.
I looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids above it.
I heard the singing of the Mississippi when Abe Lincoln
went down to New Orleans, and I've seen its muddy
bosom turn all golden in the sunset.

I've known rivers:
Ancient, dusky rivers.

My soul has grown deep like the rivers.
Zora Neale Hurston
"But for the national welfare, it is urgent to realize that the minorities do think, and think about something other than the race problem."
"I do not weep at the world; I am too busy sharpening my oyster knife."
Sometimes, I feel discriminated against, but it does not make me angry. It merely astonishes me. How can any deny themselves the pleasure of my company? It's beyond me.
Zora Neale Hurston is considered one of the pre-eminent writers of twentieth-century African-American literature. Hurston was closely associated with the Harlem Renaissance and has influenced such writers as Ralph Ellison, Toni Morrison, Gayle Jones, Alice Walker, and Toni Cade Bambara.

In 1975, Ms. Magazine published Alice Walker's essay, "In Search of Zora Neale Hurston" reviving interest in the author. Hurston's four novels and two books of folklore resulted from extensive anthropological research and have proven invaluable sources on the oral cultures of African America.

Through her writings, Robert Hemenway wrote in The Harlem Renaissance Remembered, Hurston "helped to remind the Renaissance--especially its more bourgeois members--of the richness in the racial heritage."
Ships at a distance have every man's wish on board. For some they come in with the tide. For others they sail forever on the horizon, never out of sight, never landing until the Watcher turns his eyes away in resignation, his dreams mocked to death by Time. That is the life of men.

Now, women forget all those things they don't want to remember, and remember everything they don't want to forget. The dream is the truth. Then they act and do things accordingly.
Lois Mailou Jones
Hayden Palmer
Aaron Douglas
The Ascent of Ethiopia
Les Fetishes
The Janitor Who Paints
Midsummer Night in Harlem
In 3 or 4 sentences discuss these paintings as they relate to the Harlem Renaissance.
Songs of the Two Towers
Building More Stately Mansions
"What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun?... Or does it explode?"
Hughes was the first African American author to support himself through his writing; he produced more than sixty books. He earned critical attention for his portrayal of realistic black characters and he became one of the dominant voices speaking out on issues concerning black culture. He wrote in many genres; starting and continuing with poetry, he turned to fiction, autobiographies, and children's books. His most famous fictional character is Jesse B. Semple, nicknamed Simple, who uses humor to protest and satirize the existing injustices.
Langston Hughes
"We Negro writers, just by being black, have been on the blacklist all our lives. Censorship for us begins at the color line."
"I swear to the Lord, I still can't see, why Democracy means, everybody but me."
Politics vs. Art
“We younger Negro artists who create now intend to express our individual dark-skinned selves without fear or shame. If white people are pleased we are glad. If they are not, it doesn’t matter. We know we are beautiful. And ugly too.”
“The great social gain in this is the releasing of our talented group from the arid fields of controversy and debate to the productive fields of creative expression.”
“Thus all art is propaganda and ever must be despite the wailing of the purists.”
Bessie Smith
Duke Ellington
Louis Armstrong
Jazz
Blues
How did the following artists impact current American popular music?
What do you believe was more important: fighting racial prejudice and stereotyping, or true personal expression?
've known rivers:
I've known rivers ancient as the world and older than the
flow of human blood in human veins.

My soul has grown deep like the rivers.

I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young.
I built my hut near the Congo and it lulled me to sleep.
I looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids above it.
I heard the singing of the Mississippi when Abe Lincoln
went down to New Orleans, and I've seen its muddy
bosom turn all golden in the sunset.

I've known rivers:
Ancient, dusky rivers.

My soul has grown deep like the rivers.
Full transcript