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Pavel Rios

on 2 May 2016

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Develop a basic level of knowledge and the necessary skills in flight crewmembers to understand and operate the Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) with the iPad tablet, its funtions, corresponding documents and applications.

 Pilots who have not utilized EFBs for a period exceeding 90 days must reestablish currency and, satisfactorily-complete a competency check prior to their next operational flight. Flight experience meeting the basic currency requirements is considered to satisfy the currency requirements.
 A pilot may re-establish currency by flying a minimum of 5 segments with a pilot who is current with EFB use, or utilize paper backups in conjunction with the Class 1 or 2 device for a minimum of 5 segments.
Using an Apple iPad in Part 91 Operations
For Part 91 operators, authorization is not required to utilize an iPad as a Class 1 EFB device. If an operator plans to install a mounting device or power source, requirements found in Advisory Circular 120-76C are still applicable.
An Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) is a device that allows flight crews to perform a variety of functions that were traditionally accomplished by using paper references.

In its simplest form, an EFB can perform basic flight planning calculations and display a variety of digital documentation, including navigational charts, operations manuals, and aircraft checklists.
Course Content
1. Equipment Orientation.
2. EFB Terminology.
3. Using Installed Software and Applications.
4. Use of digital documents, when and which documents must be printed.
5. EFB Standard Operating Procedures.
Training to Proficiency
 Select and display airport depiction charts.
 Departure Procedures, Arrival Procedures.
 Approach charts.
 Chart update process.
 Printing.
Prior to paperless operations, each crewmember will have successfully completed EFB training and checking conducted either in a classroom setting, or via distance learning methods as well as knowledge of the EFB manual.
The pilot in command is ultimately responsible for ensuring that the proper aeronautical charts are available for the flight, so it is important to document and validate the reliability of the iPad during the transition.

CRC Aviation Department carries 2 iPads, one for each crewmember and an aditional iPad as backup.

Mini iPads in helicopters are stand alone,acompanied by all required aeronautical charts and documents in paper format.
Class 1 Hardware
Portable hardware with no mounting device (docking station, swing-arm, cradle, or kneeboard) and has read-only connectivity to other aircraft systems.

Class 2 Hardware
Attached to the aircraft by a mounting device (docking station, swing-arm, cradle, or kneeboard) and may connect to aircraft power and data ports.

Class 3 Hardware
Permanently installed aircraft equipment that may share data with the FMS or EICAS.

Hardware Class
Software Class
Type A Software
The least complex software providing electronic documentation such as flight manuals but no navigational charts.

Type B Software
Provides all Type A information and also can display approach charts, calculate weight and balance, and deliver weather information.

Type C Software
Provides all Type A and B information and can display "own-ship" position on approach and airport charts.

The EFB gets its name from the traditional pilot's flight bag, which is typically heavy (up to 40 lb/18 kg or more) documents bag that pilots carry to the cockpit.

The electronic flight bag is the replacement of those documents in a digital format.
For large and turbine aircraft, FAR 91.503 requires the presence of navigational charts on the airplane. If an operator's sole source of navigational chart information is contained on an EFB, the operator must demonstrate the EFB will continue to operate throughout a decompression event, and thereafter, regardless of altitude. The only way to achieve this capability is by using a solid state disk drive or a standard rotating mass drive in a sealed enclosure.
Part 91 Operators can use their Pilot In Command (PIC) authority to approve the use of Class 1 and Class 2 EFBs (which are PEDs).
NETWORK Technology

Dimensions 240 x 169.5 x 7.5 mm (9.45 x 6.67 x 0.30 in)
Weight 469 g (Wi-Fi) / 478 g (3G/LTE) (1.03 lb)

DISPLAY Type LED-backlit IPS LCD, capacitive touchscreen, 16M colors
Size 9.7 inches (~71.6% screen-to-body ratio)
Resolution 1536 x 2048 pixels (~264 ppi pixel density) Multitouch
Protection Scratch-resistant glass, oleophobic coating

PLATFORM OS iOS 7, upgradable to iOS 9.3
Chipset Apple A7
CPU Dual-core 1.3 GHz Cyclone (ARM v8-based)
GPU PowerVR G6430 (quad-core graphics)

Internal 16/32/64/128 GB, 1 GB RAM DDR3

Wireless Connectivity Wi-Fi

Supported Text Formats DOC, DOCX, HTML, PDF, RTF, TXT
• A properly labeled storage area will be maintained in each aircraft. (I.E. iPad 1, iPad 2 label on the sidewall)

• Devices will be properly stowed when not in use in a manner that does not interfere with flight control movement, block the view of flight instruments or block access to or from the cockpit or emergency equipment.

• At least one device will be accessible to the crew.

• EFBs that are not secured in a mounting device during use must be attached to your person during critical phases of flight, (kneeboard for example) and used in a manner that prevents the device from jamming flight controls, damaging flight deck equipment, obscuring vision to flight instruments, or injuring flight crewmembers should the device move about as a result of turbulence, maneuvering, or other action.

Min Operating Temperature 32 °F
Max Operating Temperature 95 °F
Humidity Range Operating 5 - 95% (non-condensing)
Min Storage Temperature -4 °F
Max Storage Temperature 113 °F

Non-removable Li-Po 8600 mAh battery

Talk time Up to 10 h (multimedia)
Run Time (Up To) 10 sec
Run Time Details Web browsing over Wi-Fi - up to 10 hour(s)
Video playback - up to 10 hour(s)
Audio playback - up to 10 hour(s)
Capacity 32.4 Wh
• EFBs should have a designated area in a secure location. This area should at least include:

• A mailing address where update disks can be sent if applicable
• An AC power source for charging each units
• An area where update disks can be stored
• A printer (if necessary for printing paper copies)

EFBs may be removed from the aircraft when it is necessary to perform certain functions with the units. This may include:
 Maintenance on the device
 Battery Charging
 Operating System Upgrades
 Type “A and/or B” application revisions
 Security reasons
 Other reasons deemed necessary by the PIC
 Anytime EFBs are removed from the aircraft, a sign or placard will be displayed in a prominent position to serve as a reminder to the crew. This sign or placard should be placed in a sidewall pocket or other convenient location when the EFBs are onboard the aircraft.
Equipment Failure
Portable EFBs are limited to hosting Type A and Type B software
applications with intended functions limited to a minor failure effect classification.

Type A software applications include precomposed, fixed presentations of data currently presented in paper format. Type A applications are typically intended to be used on the ground or during noncritical phases of flight having a failure condition classification considered to be a minor hazard or less.
Equipment failure
Type B applications are applications that are intended for use during critical phases of flight having a failure condition classification considered to be a minor hazard or less.
Paper Data Removal
. Two or more operational EFBs are required to remove paper products that contain Type B software applications for in-flight use (e.g., aeronautical charts, checklists, emergency procedures, etc.) Type A software applications are not subject to this requirement. The design of the EFB function requires that no single failure or common mode error may cause the loss of required aeronautical information.
Lithium batteries
are vulnerable to overcharging and over-discharging, which can (through internal failure) result in overheating. Overheating may result in thermal runaway, which can cause the release of either molten burning lithium or a flammable electrolyte. Once one cell in a battery pack goes into thermal runaway, it produces enough heat to cause adjacent cells to also go into thermal runaway. The resulting fire can flare repeatedly as each cell ruptures and releases its contents.
Applications and documents
The CRC Aviation department currently holds the following applications and documents in its iPads Air for the Falcon and Mini iPads for the helicopters:
EFB pilot's SOP's 2.1
EFB pilot's SOP's 2.2
EFB pilot's SOP's 2.3
Global positioning system antennas
A GPS antenna may be built into a class 1 or 2 EFB or external to an EFB. A portable GPS antenna is considered ancillary PED equipment and must be included in EFB evaluation and testing.

An installed GPS antenna may be used to provide signal reception to an EFB and must support the intended function of the EFB.
Any Class 1 device will have a minimum battery charge of at least: 50% + 10% of the flight time in minutes (Max of 100% (Example): Flight time is scheduled for 90 minutes. 10% of 90 minutes = 9. 50% + 9% = 59% minimum battery life is required for this flight. • "50% + 10% of the flight time in minutes (Max of 100%).
Using the above calculations, should a flight require a battery charge in excess of 100%, alternating the use of EFBs will reduce the drain on one device. Carrying a third approved device, and using the hibernate mode is also a means to ensure sufficient battery life is maintained. (See iPad user guide on batteries)
Jeppesen details of service and revisions
PIC’s and Aircraft Managers, that use approved EFB’s will be responsible for at least, but not all inclusive:

EFB authorization in their aircraft
EFBs overall condition
Data currency
Proper forms and signage are onboard the aircraft (EFB Checklist, Voice Com, Discrepancy, EFB Removed)
Sufficient battery charge
Paper copies onboard (if required)
EFB battery chargers

 When the device is not in use on the flight deck, it should be put into the hibernate mode by pushing the power button on the edge of the device, at the top right corner.

 Batteries in the case of iPads cannot be replaced. Batteries are design to withstand up to 1000 cycles before decreasing charging capacity.
One downside to the iPad battery is that there is no way to replace it in the field. If your battery needs service or replacement, it must be sent back to Apple or taken to an Apple service provider.
The display of an own-ship symbol limited to the airport surface is identified as a Type B software application and limited to functions having a failure condition classification considered to be a minor hazard or less, and only for use at speeds of less than 80 knots (kts). May be considered only an aid to situational awareness.

On the airport surface is intended to help flightcrews orient themselves on an airport chart/map, and to improve pilot positional awareness during taxi takeoff, and upon landing. Type B software applications using display of own-ship position on the airport surface are not sufficient to be used as the basis for operational guidance, maneuvering, and control.
From a VFR pilot’s perspective, the most useful navigation chart is the FAA’s Caribbean VFR World Aeronautical Chart (WAC). Take a look at the paper options and you’ll find there are 3 WAC charts published for the Caribbean: CH-25, CJ-26, CJ-27. These provide complete coverage from Florida down to Cuba and Jamaica, all of the Bahamas, and then extend beyond Puerto Rico to the U.S. Virgin Islands and the northern West Indies.
Documents installed:
Aircraft Flight Manuals,
Flight Operations Manual,
GPS Manual,
Human Resources Manual,
JeppView is the Microsoft Windows PC application providing you with a simple and intuitive feature to search, view, and print enroute and terminal charts, Airway Manual text and revision letters. Offered as a ground supplement or backup to digital flight solutions JeppView provides the ability to search, view and print any single chart or organized and saved as Routepacks.
is a free flight planning service for creating and filing IFR and VFR flight plans, obtaining weather briefings and navigation logs for flights in the U.S., Bahamas, Canada, Intra-Canada, Mexico, Central America and most Caribbean airports. FltPlan offers pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight tools including: Airport/FBO Information, Approach Plates / Digital Charts, Routes with Radar Overlay, Nearby Airports, Fuel Stops, Quick Info, Area Fuel Prices, Flight Schedule Calendar, Customizable A/C Performance, Stored Routes, TOLD Card, Flight Tracking, Planned ATC Routes, Email Notifications, and Historical Flight Tracking with Weather Overlay.
With the Gyronimo Performance Pad you can calculate weight and balance and performance in just a few seconds!
Each Performance Pad is designed specifically for one particular helicopter or fixed wing type.
The Performance Pads are easy to use and perfect for pilots, flight instructors and students alike.
The high end graphics work extremely well in the iPad and give the impression of the very latest cockpit avionics.
When an update is available for any of your installed applications, you’ll see a red badge on the App Store icon on the iPad home screen. Open the App Store program, and you’ll then see the Updates tab at the lower right of the screen. App updates can also be set to download automatically (from the Settings App, iTunes and App Store page). Most updates are free.
FAR 91.21, Portable electronic devices (PEDs)

This applies only to air carriers and IFR flights
Covers almost all electronic devices–not just EFBs Pilots must determine that the PED won’t interfere with the navigation or communication systems The determination must be made by the PIC or operator of the aircraft.
iPads and CRM
Use of Tablet PC’s in the cockpit requires close attention to crew coordination, and demands that flight crews brief each other when the Tablet PC is in use, and especially when the device is shared among crewmembers. A positive exchange of flight controls is necessary when the pilot flying desires to look at the screen after the PNF retrieves information. To minimize the potential adverse
effects of handling a tablet PC during flight, crewmembers are required to practice retrieving, powering up using, exchanging, and storing the Tablet PC while at their
duty stations, with the aircraft on the ground.
So is it legal to fly iPads for Corporate operations or not?
Aimed at Part 91 operators, VFR or IFR:
EFBs can be used in all phases of flight in lieu of paper when:
The EFB is the functional equivalent of the paper material
The EFB data is current and valid
The EFB app meets the AC 120-76C definition/limitations of a Type A (precomposed information) or Type B (interactive) application.
Reference Documents
FAR Part 91 and RAD 91 regulations.
AC 91-78, Use of Class 1 or Class 2 Electronic Flight Bag (EFB).
AC 120-76C, Guidelines for the Certification, Airworthiness and Operational Use of Electronic Flight Bags (EFB).
The brightness or intensity of the screen is adjustable by pressing the Fn button twice (Fn Fn) to activate the Tablet and Pen Settings screen. Choose the Display Tab. Drag the slider to the left to decrease the intensity, or drag the slider to the right to increase the intensity, then click “APPLY”.
Use of the EFB during Night Operations The screen is normally set to it’s maximum brightness during daylight operations, and changed to a lower setting for night time use.
Your iPad becomes completely unusable when it overheats and will display a temperature warning on the screen.
At this point, your only option is to get it to a cooler environment and lower the internal temperature. Remove it from direct sunlight and aim a few air vents over if possible. If you had it in a kneeboard or case, remove these to aid the cooling process. Once the iPad’s temperature lowers it will automatically switch back on–there’s nothing else for you to do at that point, except to keep it out of the sun.
7.1. Class 1 or 2 Devices:

• PIC’s or Aircraft Managers will be responsible for performing timely data and database updates.

• Except as noted in Out Of Date Electronic Chart Database contingency procedures, out of date data is no longer suitable, and must not be used after the "EFFECTIVE-UNTIL DATE."
In the case of the iPad, a “Restriction Code” may be utilized. The PIC or Aircraft Manager will inhibit any function of the device not necessary for the safety of flight. Some examples are:
 Photo’s
 Music
 Games
 iPod
 Installing Apps

• EFB software and applications will require periodic updates of data and databases in order to remain "current”.
• Updates are a part of operating with an EFB, just as regular manual revisions are when using a paper products.
• Update media may be delivered in various formats, including CD/DVD-ROM disks, USB flash drives, email, or secure electronic delivery.
• Company manual revisions will be tracked using the current procedures.

10.1. Expired Revision Cycle

• If for any reason an electronic chart subscription can't be updated, a flight may continue for up to 5 business days past the chart valid date provided the aircraft FMS database is current and the PIC and the Flt Ops department determine that the intended airport(s) of use are affected. Paper copies will be obtained. If replacement charts are needed, they may be printed, electronically transmitted, shipped, or any other available means for the flight crew to gain access to them. A Jeppesen trip kit is an available option.
10.2. Flights Outside Of Normal Subscription Area

• For flights outside of the normal area of operations for a given aircraft, it will be necessary to obtain expanded JeppView chart coverage. This can be done one of two ways:
• Purchase an electronic Jeppesen trip kit.
• Carry a paper-based Jeppesen trip kit or full, current paper Jeppesen Airway Manual that covers the intended area of operation.

10.3. Procedures

 The following procedures must be performed with respect to type “B” database updates:
 A Revision Tracking Log for each device (found in the EFB manual) will be maintained for each aircraft having EFB approval. This log will be maintained by the individual flight department.
 The individual performing the database update will fill out the revision log which will reside at each operators base of operations.
Minimun Equipment List
Operators may update their MELs to reflect the installation of this equipment. Changes made to the operator’s MEL should be made in accordance with the approved Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL).
Minimun Equipment Lists
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