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Limnic Eruptions

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by

Brooke B

on 27 January 2015

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Transcript of Limnic Eruptions


You probably don't know much about limnic eruptions, and that is why we are here; to tell you everything we know about them. First, you need to know that a limnic eruption is similar to a volcanic eruption, but a limnic eruption is in a freshwater lake and, instead of lava, consists of carbon dioxide.

When it Can Happen
Pictures of a Low Lake Turnover and the Triggers
How it Happens
A limnic eruption can occur in most freshwater lakes, but it is less likely to happen in the lakes in North America and other places that have large temerature changes. This is because North America has two low lake turnovers a year* (in spring and fall) and the water temperature keeps changing, not giving enough time fo one to occur.

* The one shown in the diagram is one big turnover, not two.
Why it Happens
A limnic eruption occurs because a lake has a lot of carbon dioxide in it which makes it unstable. When that carbon dioxide dissolves, there will be a limnic eruption.
What Happens
All living things around the area will suffocate from the carbon dioxide. People as far away as 25 kilometers from Lake Nyos died from the eruption. The reason why all of the living things suffocate is because the carbon dioxide released from the eruption spreads out and, because it's heavier than oxygen, all the oxygen is pushed upwards away from people. That is why you are more likely to suffocate from a limnic eruption if you live in low lying areas.
Theories say that the carbon dioxide also contains a dissolved acid that changes the human skin colour.
The carbon dioxide that is released can cause frost-bite and blisters because it is very cold.
Limnic Eruptions
First of All...
By Gabrielle and Brooke
Since limnic eruptions are so rare, scientists can't do much research on them but they have discovered the requirements needed; there must be a source of gas, high pressures, cool temperatures, a low lake turnover and a trigger. A low lake turnover is when the top water goes to the bottom and the water at the bottom goes to the top, making the water cold. A trigger could be a landslide, volcano eruption, explosion, earthquake or a wind and rain storm.
A limnic eruption occurs when a large bubble of carbon dioxide that is trapped at the bottom of a freshwater lake gets released. It floats upwards, and when it reaches the top it explodes outwards. It releases approximately 80 cubic metres of gas into the air. The gas can travel as far as 25 kilometers (15.5 miles), suffocating all of the plants, animals and humans in its path.

*The limnic eruption is purely gas, there is no lava, heat, fire, ash or smoke.*
Where it Happens
A limnic eruption is the rarest natural disaster.

There has only been two limnic eruptions to ever be recorded by humans (there probably were some long ago, but weren't or couldn't be recorded), they were both in Cameroon, Africa. One was in Lake Nyos (1986) and the other in Lake Monoun (1984). Also, Lake Kivu is expected to erupt soon, but scientists are trying to find ways to prevent the eruption.

Extra Information
Physical, Social and Environmental Effects
A limnic eruption is just gas so there isn't much physical evidence. It leaves dead people, plants, animals and a gross coloured lake.
Lake Nyos after a limnic eruption
We have included a video about Limnic Eruptions. Enjoy!
Thanks For Watching!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Thanks For Watching!!!!!!!!
It's not an inconvenience that the plants and animals used for food are dead, because the consumers are dead, too!
Aid Relief for the Lake Nyos Eruption
Camp Female Male Total
Esu 64 51 115

Kimbi 406 377 783

Kumfutu 88 167 255

Wada 121 124 245

Catholic Mission 108 142 250

Misaje 212 216 428
The surrounding area was very lifeless and dead, but there was no harm done to any of the building. People were afraid to go in the area of the incident for a while because they feared that they would be affected.
Resettlement Camps
TOTAL 999 1077 2076
Financial Effects
Once the limnic eruption is over, they install pipes into the lake that act like straws. They take out the saturated water, which helps prevent another limnic eruption to happen. These pipes cost around $50,000 - $100,000 to install.
Full transcript