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Product Design Materials Revision

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by

Clair Etheridge

on 19 June 2015

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Transcript of Product Design Materials Revision

Product Design Materials Revision
Paper & Card
Common Form
Properties
How materials behave

Mechanical Properties

TIMBERRRRRRRRRSSSS & tings
Hardwoods
Physical Properties

Plasticity
Elasticity
Strength
Hardness
Toughness
Durability
ability of a material to be permanently changed in shape
melting into a liquid, pouring into a mould and allowing to set
ability of a material to bend and flex when a force is applied
returns to its normal shape when force is removed
ability to withstand force without breaking or deforming
Compressive strength - withstand being crushed
Tensile strength - withstand being pulled/stretched
how resistant a material is to wear
a material is known to be 'hardwearing'
where are hardwearing materials used?
a materials ability to absorb sudden impact before breaking
the materials resistance to wear and tear
can is resist corrosion & deterioration?
Electrical Conductivity
Thermal Conductivity
Magnetic Properties
Optical Properties
Acoustic Properties
Environmental Properties
The impact of the material on the environment
extraction
reuse
recycle
pollution
transportation
natural habitats
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
weighed in gsm - grams per square metre
e.g. 100 gsm
above 200gsm - BOARD
Layout & Tracing Paper
translucent
regularly used by designers
lightweight
can be used as an underlay for further designs
Cartridge Paper
Cardboard
tough & lightly textured
100 - 135 gsm
general drawing & sketching
work well with spirit markers
often used with watercolours
heavier form of paper
often from recycled materials
>200 gsm
can be laminated to create thicker board
Solidboard
Duplex Board
Foil Lined Board
pure bleached wood pulp
strong & high quality
used for book covers & expensive packaging
one side covered with a bleached liner
often used in food packaging
250 - 500 gsm
laminating foil to one side of a board
why use foil?
Plastic Fantastic
Metal Mickey
Softwoods
Manufactured Boards
Handy
BROAD leaves
lose their leaves in winter
oak
beech
mahogany
Good quality furniture
Interior woodwork
Good quality furniture
strong
hard
tough
Fairly strong
Durable
furniture - chairs
toys
close grained
tough
hard
strong
Needle-like leaves
Pinky-pines
Keep their leaves ALL year round - EVERGREENS
Parana Pine
Scots Pine
Spruce
Good quality interior woodwork
hard
fairly strong
durable
Standard internal woodwork & DIY
fairly strong
easy to work with
Standard timber for internal woodwork & DIY
fairly strong
easy to work with
small knots
Man-Made boards
NOT directly from trees -
OAK
MAHOGANY
BEECH
Have you ever seen an MDF tree??
Plywood
MDF
Chipboard
PLYWOOD
thin layers of wood glued together at right angles to each other
Medium Density Fibreboard
wood dust and resin COMPRESSED together to form a board
GREAT for vacuum formed formers... why??
CHIPBOARD
small chips of wood glued together with resin and COMPRESSED into sheets
Name an advantage of using manufactured boards over natural timber? (not cheaper!)
Thermoplastic
Thermo-setting plastic
Has a 'memory'
Acrylic
PP
PET
HDPE
LDPE
can be reheated & reshaped
stiff & hard
scratches easily
brittle
Once set - set for life
cannot be reformed
Epoxy Resin
Urea Formaldehyde
Melamine formaldehyde
Polyester Resin
stiff
hard
brittle unless laminated
good electrical conductor
resists chemicals well
used for casting & bonding of other materials
stiff
hard
strong
brittle
good electrical insulator
used for electrical fittings
handles
control knobs
stiff
hard
strong
resists some chemicals & stains
used for laminates on kitchen surfaces
electrical insulation
tableware
good electrical insulator
hard
stiff
brittle unless reinforced
used for casting & bonding materials together
Ferrous
Non-Ferrous
Alloys
Contain iron
magnetic
prone to rust
Cast Iron
Mild Steel
Stainless Steel
Melting temperature - 1200*c
hard skin
softer underneath
brittle
vices
car brake disc
complex shapes which can be cast
iron + 3% carbon
melting point 1600*c
tough
ductile
malleable
good tensile strength
poor resistance to corrosion
nails, screws, bolts, nuts
car bodies
Alloy steel
alloy of iron & carbon
contains chromium, nickel, magnesium
hard
tough
resists wear
corrosion resistant
cutlery
sinks
dishes
teapots
do NOT contain iron
Aluminium
Brass
Copper
and finally........
melting point - 660*c
pure metal
good strength to weight ratio
light
ductile
good conductor of heat & electricity
soft
kitchen equipment
drinks cans
packaging
melting point - 900 - 1000*c
contains 35%zinc
corrosion resistant
good inductor of electricity & heat
boat fittings
ornaments
casting (valves)
melting temperature 1083*c
pure metal
machines & polishes well
signs
wash basins & baths
car light covers
aircraft windows
Acrylic
Polypropolene
light
hard
scratches easily
durable
good resistance to chemicals
medical equipment
containers - with built in 'hinges' (lock & lock)
string & rope
plastic chairs
kitchen equipment
Polyethylene Terephthalate
hard
stiff
strong
good resistance to chemicals
soft drinks containers
packaging
yoghurt pots
frozen dinner trays
High Density Polythene
stiff
hard
waxy feel
milk crates
bottles
pipes
buckets
bowls
Low Density Polythene
tough
common
good chemical resistance
flexible
toys
packaging film
carrier bags
tv cables
malleable
tough
suitable for hot & cold working
good conductor
hot water storage pipes
electrical wire
a combination of two or more metals
alloying metals
changes the melting point
changes the colour
changes electrical/thermal properties
increase strength, hardness & ductility
examples
brass
stainless steel
bronze
copper & tin
iron, chromium, nickel
copper & brass
Parana Pine
Scots Pine
Spruce
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