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Mimosi bilocaligo

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Selena Singh

on 13 May 2014

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Transcript of Mimosi bilocaligo

Mimosi bilocaligo
The "Shy Bug"
Design an Arthropod
By: Sachi, Selena and Jugraj
The Biodiversity Hotspot
Where is it located?
Why is it at risk?
Scientific Name & Common Name
Habitat
Food Preferences
Physical Appearance
Reproductive Characteristics
Plant Partner
Mimosa Pudica
Co-evolution
Why is it considered a
new class
of Arthropods?
Why is it important?
-The Atlantic Forest stretches from the northeastern to the southern regions of Brazil and northern Argentina and southeastern Paraguay.
- The Atlantic Forest is similar to the Amazon Forest in terms of the diversity of species of plants and animals.
- Moist tropical forest
- Is home to 8% of the Earth's plants, approximately 20,000 species.
- The Atlantic Forest harbors around 2,200 species of birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians – 5% of the vertebrates on Earth.
- 500 years ago, the Atlantic Forest of Brazil covered approximately 330 million acres of land; however, more than 85% of this forest has been cleared due to human activities and deforestation and the small fraction that remains is highly fragmented.
- At present, less than 2% of the whole biome is under protected status.
- The forest is at risk because it is located next to growing, populated cities such as Rio de Genaro and Sao Paulo.
Human activities:
-Illegal logging and extractive activities of valuable timber species
-Land conversion to pasture, agriculture, and forest plantations
-Expansion of urban areas and suburban development


Scientific Name:
Mimosi bilocaligo

-The genus of the arthropod is an altration of the Mimosa plant genus, which is the plant that the Shy Bug has co evolved with.
- The species name is a combination of the Caligo butterfly species and the Bilobatum species.
Common Name: The "Shy Bug"
- The Shy Bug resides in Brazil's Atlantic Forest--particularly in areas where moist, rich soil is predominant as the arthropod lives on the Mimosa Pudica's plant stem.
- Due to co evolution with the Mimosa plant, it is essential for the arthropod to live in tropical climates.
- The Shy Bug cannot tolerate cold or frost and will immediately die in cold temperatures.
- The plant forms a thick ground cover and prevents other plants from reproducing; thus allowing the Shy Bug to reproduce in large numbers and dominate the region
Mimosa Plant
Tropical Forest
- The Shy Bug is a carnivorous arthropod that eats other small arthropods instead of the mimosa plant, due to the fact that the plant provides the bug shelter.
- Its main diet consists of earthworms, soil invertebrates, spiders, mites, and decaying matter.
- Its food source also contains other miniscule arthropods that live in the soil or approach the mimosa pudica plant.
- The Shy Bug travells down the stem of the plant using the two pairs of appendages that are located on each body segment, and then camoflouges with the plant as it waits for prey to pass by. It then secretively attacks the prey and takes it food back up to the leaves of the plant where it eats peacefully.
- If another arthropod with wings is in close proximity to the plant, it will use its 5 wings to fly rapidly and capture its food.
• Mimosa bilocaligo evolved with the Mimosa pudica plant through the means of natural selection.
• The Mimosa pudica plant has unique nervous impulses that are caused by external sources that results in the plant reacting in defensively positive ways (i.e., when you touch the plant, the leaflets close in)
• Mimosa bilocaligo co-evolved with the plant in the means that the arthropod has the capability of replicating the Mimosa pudica’s defensive behavior. This is what allows the arthropod to camouflage with the plant.

- When touched, the Mimosa pudica plant quickly folds its leaflets and pinnae and droops downward at the petiole attachment. Prolonged exposure to rain or excessive heat also casues the plant to droop. The leaves also droop at night. This response is defensive--so that the plant looks less appealing to herbivorous insects and animals-- and also prevents the leaching loss of nutrients, and desiccation.

An arthropod is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and jointed appendages. The Mimosi bilocaligo (Shy Bug) is classified as being in the Uniramia sub-phylum; however, it cannot be categorized in any one class due to the fact that its physical structure does not meet the criteria. The characteristics that separate this organism from the other classes are the following:
• 3 antennae
• 5 wings rather than 2 pairs of wings
• 4 body segments
Mimosi bilocaligo (Shy Bug) has very close relations with the Mimosa pudica as they have coevolved with one another.
The plant is considered an excellent herb that has extensive medicinal properites.
Mimosi bilocaligo helps distribute the seeds of the Mimosa pudica plant, resulting in the Mimosa Pudica population to increase.
This allows for the harvesting of the plant, and scientists can consiquently do more research to find more medicinal properties of the plant that haven't currently been found.
- The Shy Bug is an arthropod that is classified in the Uniramia sub-phyla, but it is a combination of the chiplopoda and insect classes.
- 4 body segments including: a head, thorax, abdomen, and a tail
- each segment contains 2-4 pairs of appendages, legs, which it uses to crawl down the stem of the Mimosa plant
- 2 segments in the middle are brown and the segments on the ends are black
- 3 antenna
- 2 mandibles coming out of the mouth
- 5 wings, 2 on either side and 1 on top of the tail
- wings are greenish yellow to resemble to Mimosa plant

- Although
Mimosa pudica
is native to South America, it has become a tropical weed to the region. It has been introduced to many countries as an ornamental plant and is still available for sale. Mimosa pudica has become a pest in forest plantations, cropland, orchards and pasture.
- In many regions, the plant is considered to be a medicinal herb and is used as a cure for wounds.
Additionally, the Mimosi bilocaligo has such physical characteristics that have never been observed by scientists; respectively, it has been put under a new class of arthropod. In order to learn more about the Shy Bug and other possible organisms that fall in the same class as the Mimosi bilocaligo, more research must be done.
With more information about the species, the university will have the ability to apply the knowledge aquired from the bug and the plant to find more medicinal properties of the plant. Mimosi bilocaligo demonstrates the great diversity that exists in the Atlantic Forest and also causes one to question the classification system that currently exists.
It also resembles the physical appearance of the plant—the arthropod’s wings (through natural selection) evolved to match the elongated and rounded-off square shape of the plant’s leaflets.
Predators were more likely to pick off the arthropods that contrasted with the plant (arthropods that had a different wing colour or shape)
The shy bug disperses the seeds of the plant showing interdependence and the plant in return provides a habitat for the bug.


Life Cycle
Egg gets fertilized
larva hatches from egg
has mandables, eyes and a mouth, but no legs, wings, antennae or segmented body parts
Molts for the first time
segmented body parts
colours change slightly
Second Molting
Legs develop
antennas grow in
Metamorphosis
Pupa forms
Full Adult with wings emmerges
lays eggs/sperm package

The middle antenna that the arthropod has is used for communication once the organism reaches sexual maturity
A female and male Shy Bug find themselves by tracking vibrations sent by the middle antenna, and the female bug proceeds with laying 60-80 eggs in soil that is directly under a Mimosa plant
The male Shy Bug deposits a sperm package in the hole that the eggs were layed in
Both arthropods leave the fertilized eggs
Full transcript