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Modeling & Observational Learning
Transcript of Modeling & Observational Learning
How do we optimize learning?
Models | individuals whose verbal and nonverbal behaviors serve as cues for observers’ subsequent behavior
What makes for an effective model? Modeling Acquisition of new skills & behaviors
Response facilitation Types of Modeling Effects 4 essential components of modeling:
recognize & distinguish relevant features
code, organize, & rehearse visual info
physical capabilities needed
motivated to reproduce modeled actions Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory
(1977, 1986) Demonstration Perception Motor
Response Psychological Response What type of model would you use (and why)? For teaching young children how to dive
For teaching older adults how to use a new piece of exercise equipment
For teaching advanced tennis player a new strategy What types of models are there? Vicarious Modeling (symbolic)
view it, then do it
can be live or on video
model similarity a key to success
age, gender, ability of model
Different types of vicarious models:
Coping or learning models
What types of models are there? Participant modeling
provides physical assistance or guidance
gradually removes guidance
Appropriate when there is fear or anxiety involved
Model verbalizations helpful (“show &tell”)
Modeling + feedback increases learning
Providing practice time critical Strategies for Effective Modeling Attention
verbalize key points, explain why
use skill progression
allow for practice
encourage and reward Developmental Differences
Children process info more slowly & are unable to selectively attend to movement info until 12 years
below 7, over-exclude visual clues
7-11, over-include visual clues
Children have limited memory capacity & less sophisticated retention strategies Motor Response Perception Psychological Response Demonstration