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Modeling & Observational Learning

KIN 247: Learning in sport via the process of modeling
by

Sean Mullen

on 10 October 2012

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Transcript of Modeling & Observational Learning

Dr. Sean Mullen Modeling & Observational Learning Modeling | the cognitive, affective, and behavioral changes that result from observing others

How do we optimize learning?

Models | individuals whose verbal and nonverbal behaviors serve as cues for observers’ subsequent behavior

What makes for an effective model? Modeling Acquisition of new skills & behaviors
Psychological responses
Response facilitation Types of Modeling Effects 4 essential components of modeling:
Attention
recognize & distinguish relevant features
Retention
code, organize, & rehearse visual info
Motor production
physical capabilities needed
Motivation
motivated to reproduce modeled actions Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory
(1977, 1986) Demonstration Perception Motor
Response Psychological Response What type of model would you use (and why)? For teaching young children how to dive

For teaching older adults how to use a new piece of exercise equipment

For teaching advanced tennis player a new strategy What types of models are there? Vicarious Modeling (symbolic)
view it, then do it
can be live or on video
model similarity a key to success
age, gender, ability of model
Different types of vicarious models:
Mastery models
Coping or learning models

What types of models are there? Participant modeling
demonstrates activity
provides physical assistance or guidance
gradually removes guidance
Appropriate when there is fear or anxiety involved

Model verbalizations helpful (“show &tell”)
Modeling + feedback increases learning
Providing practice time critical Strategies for Effective Modeling Attention
Remove distractions
Retention
verbalize key points, explain why
designate labels
Reproduction
use skill progression
allow for practice
Motivation
encourage and reward Developmental Differences
Children process info more slowly & are unable to selectively attend to movement info until 12 years
below 7, over-exclude visual clues
7-11, over-include visual clues
Children have limited memory capacity & less sophisticated retention strategies Motor Response Perception Psychological Response Demonstration
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