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Transcript of Public Speaking
Remember that you are often the only one who knows when you make a mistake.
Remember to have confidence in yourself and realize that this class is about learning and improving your skills...everyone can benefit and improve!
Chapter 2: Controlling Nervousness
What are the 4 types of fear that create nervousness in speeches?
fear of being stared at
fear of judgment
fear of failure
fear of the unknown
Why is controlled nervousness beneficial?
Nervousness releases adrenaline that can help the speaker to push through fear and even have extra energy for the presentation.
What techniques can help to control nervousness?
Should you memorize your speech?
No, it can make the speaker seem robotic and can create panic for the speaker who gets off track.
What is the difference between the facial expressions during a conversation and during a speech?
During a conversation, faces are animated while during a speech, faces often show a blank stare.
Chapter 3: Listening
What is the Golden Rule of Listening?
A listener should give a speaker full attention, including, but not limited to, not speaking while the speaker is talking.
What is the difference between hearing and listening?
Hearing occurs when the ears pick up sound waves being transmitted by a speaker, whereas listening involves processing and making sense out of what is being transmitted.
What major responsibilities do listeners have to speakers?
notes if appropriate
nodding when appropriate
What are the major types of distractions to listening?
physical: physical comfort
mental: daydreaming or distractions of the mind
How does taking notes during a speech help the listener?
records main points
strengthens the listener's ability to listen and focus
strengthens the listener's ability to analyze
How can a listener constructively evaluate a speech and/or speaker?
Constructive analysis includes explaining both the things that the speaker did well and the things that the speaker needs to work on for future speeches.
Chapter 4: Reaching the Audience
What does it mean to be an audience-centered speaker?
An audience-centered speaker strives to understand the listeners so that he or she can meet their needs and interests.
What is the difference between audience analysis and audience adaptation?
Analysis means finding out exactly who the listeners are and what they know. Adaptation means shaping a speech to satisfy the listeners' particular needs and interests.
How can a speaker adapt to varying levels of audience knowledge, attitudes, interests, and needs and desires?
When an audience has varying levels of knowledge, begin with the simplest information and build to the more difficult. With differing attitudes, interest, needs and desires, try to make sure your speech appeals to the broadest array of listeners.
How can a speaker adapt to a time limit, purpose and size of audience?
Always prepare your speech for various time frames...add stories or examples for length and be prepared to remove them for shorter time frames. Always make sure that your speech can be given to any size audience.
What is ethnocentrism?
Ethnocentrism is the belief that one's own ethnic group is superior to other groups.
Chapter 5: Topic, Purpose and Central Idea
Why is topic choice so important?
A speaker is more effective when presenting a speech that has some meaning to him or her or interests him or her.
What is purpose (both general and specific) for a speech?
General purpose is the overall reason for giving the speech (Ex. to inform, to persuade, to entertain). Specific purpose is the more specific goal of the speaker (Ex. to persuade the audience to get involved with the local animal shelter).
What is the central idea of a speech?
The central idea of a speech is the basic message of a speech expressed in one sentence.
What are the main points of a speech?
The ideas, or subtopics, that the speaker wants to discuss in his or her speech.
Chapter 1: Public Speaking and the Challenge of Communication
1) Speaker: the person who presents the message.
2) Message: whatever a speaker communicates to someone else (this depends on both verbal and nonverbal communication).
3) Channel: the means by which a message is communicated (straight from the speaker, radio, tv, etc.)
4) Listener: the person who receives the communicated message (note that the message is filtered through the listener's personal frame of reference).
5) Feedback: the messages sent from the listener to the speaker (communication involves two-way communication so both the audience and the speaker are receiving feedback).
6) Interference: anything that impedes the communication of a message.
7) Situation: the time and place in which the speech communication occurs.
Eight Steps in the Communication Pathway
Chapter 10: Outlining a Speech
Chapter 11: The Body of the Speech
Outlining a speech is skillfully organizing the speech using a central idea, main points, an introduction, a conclusion, and transitions. Listing visual aids and bibliography references is also helpful when outlining.
The use of complete sentences in an outline for a speech helps the speaker to formulate full ideas.
Effective introductions grab the attention of the audience and effective conclusions help the audience to remember the key material from the speech.
Chapter 15: Informative Speeches
What are the 4 major types of informative speeches?
Definitional: The speaker attempts to set forth the meaning of concepts, theories, philosophies, or issues that may unfamiliar to the audience.
Descriptive: The speaker provides a detailed, vivid, word picture of a person, animal, place or object.
Explanatory: The speaker focuses on reports of current and historical events, customs, transformations, inventions, policies, outcomes, and options.
Demonstration: The speaker shows listeners how some process is done or how to perform it themselves.
Organizational Patterns for Informative Speeches
Topical: organizes a speech according to aspects, subtopics, or topics.
Chronological: organizes a speech according to a time sequence.
Spatial: organizes a speech according to the geography or physical structure of the subject.
Causal: organizes a speech from cause to effect or vice versa.
Pro-Con: organizes a speech according to arguments for and against some policy, position, or action.
Problem-Solution: organizes a speech by identifying and analyzing a problem and proposing a solution.
Chapter 12: Introductions and Conclusions
Make sure to formulate attention-getting material for the introduction of your speech.
An introduction for an informative speech should give a thesis or a list of main points; it should also contain an attention grabber.
Why should you try to grab the audience's attention at the very beginning?
If the speaker does not grab the attention upfront, he or she may never get the attention of the audience.
What is orienting material and when is it needed?
Orienting material gives the listener a clear sense of what the speech is about and any other information that they might need in order to understand the ideas in the speech.
A conclusion should recap the main points of the speech to help the listeners remember the key information.
A clincher is a memorable finale, such as a quotation or story, which reinforces the central idea of your speech.
Chapter 13: Wording the Speech
It is important to choose words that are appropriate for the audience, the speech, and the occasion.
Plain English should be used in most cases. Inflated language (words designed to puff up the importance of the person or thing being described) and other doublespeak should be avoided unless they serve a purpose. Language should be clear, accurate, and concise. If the speaker is building a picture for the audience, the language must be vivid and descriptive.
Correct grammar must be used and plays an important part in building credibility with the audience.
What is the difference between denotation and connotation?
The denotation of a word is the thing or idea that it refers to--its dictionary definition. The connotation of a word is the emotional meaning that is associated with it. Example: Sports teams are named after birds with positive emotional meanings (eagles, falcons, cardinals) but not those birds with negative emotional meanings (vultures, crows, pigeons).
Chapter 14: Delivery of the Speech
• What are the characteristics of good eye contact?
Good eye contact requires looking at the audience 95% of the time and looking at all parts of the audience.
What vocal techniques can keep the listener involved in the speech?
A speaker needs to pronounce and articulate words correctly to make sure there is no miscommunication between the speaker and the audience. A speaker should make sure that he or she maintains the rate of speaking and varies the tone of voice appropriately. One of the biggest issues facing many speakers is the use of verbal fillers...this can be the word "um," inappropriate pauses, or other phrases that don't fit into the speech.
Nonverbal behavior greatly affects the message received by the audience. If there is a discrepancy between the speaker's words and nonverbal behavior, the audience will interpret the nonverbal behavior as the real message.
• How can the way that a speaker is dressed affect the speech?
The dress of the speaker sends nonverbal messages to the audience about the speaker. Dressing appropriately for the occasion is important as "dressing down" can show disrespect.
• What can speakers do with their hands to make sure that their hands are free for gesturing?
Speakers can let their hands rest lightly on the podium or to hang naturally by their sides.
Is perfect delivery necessary for the speech to be considered successful?
Perfection is rare and trying to achieve perfection will place unnecessary stress on the speaker. The purpose of a speech is to have the speakers remember the material and that can be done without a perfect delivery.
Should the speaker have a question and answer period?
A period for questions and answers does allow for more audience participation.
How can a speaker handle an argumentative audience member?
The speaker should avoid being defensive, see if the audience member's point has merit, admit if that is the case, and promise to look into the matter if appropriate.
• Remember that each person must decide whether to use paper or index cards for notes. Index cards can be dropped or placed in incorrect order but paper can roll up, be noisy, or provide a canvas for too much information.
Students can often learn good techniques on how to give a successful speech by critiquing other students' speeches. It focuses the student more on the details of the process..
Chapter 16: Speaking to Persuade
Chapter 17: Persuasive Strategies
Types of Persuasive Speeches
Speech to influence thinking: gets listener to think a certain way
Speech of refutation: knocks down an argument that the speaker feels is false
Speech to motivate action: gets listener to act immediately. Examples of immediate action: petition, show of hands, sign-up sheet, written assignment
Patterns of Organization for Persuasive Speeches
Monroe's Motivated Sequence: attempts to get action from the listeners
Step 1: Attention--to get the audience to listen
Step 2: Need--to get the audience to feel a need or want
Step 3: Satisfaction--to tell the audience how to fill the need or want
Step 4: Visualization--to get the audience to see the benefits of the solution
Step 5: Action--to get the audience to take action
Problem-Solution Pattern: lists a specific solution
Statement of Reasons Pattern: used when the audience would tend to agree with you if given reasons
Comparative-Advantages Pattern: used when listeners know there is a problem but need solutions
How does a speaker reassure listeners during a persuasive speech?
The speaker should be careful with his or her facts and figures.
The speaker should only use reliable sources.
The speaker should not make wild claims and should not exaggerate.
The speaker should examine the "other side."
The speaker should show respect for disagreement.
Things to Avoid during a Persuasive Speech
Never attack other speakers or experts to build your own credibility.
Never use a "straw man," a ridiculous view of an opponent that is easy to beat down.
Never use a "red herring," a distraction from the real issue with an unrelated matter.
Listener Motivations: love, happiness, health, social acceptance, financial security, adventure, creativity, etc.
Use of Emotion: A speaker can use emotion in a speech but must also balance the use of logic and reason as well.
Chapter 9: Visual Aids
• Presentation, or visual, aids help your audience understand your ideas.
Reasons to Use a Visual Aid
A speaker can use visual aids to announce each main point as you begin discussion of that point.
A speaker can also use visual aids to accentuate and illuminate important ideas.
Visual aids help the audience follow your argument, your "train" of thought.
They make your presentation more memorable and thus increase the chances that what you said will be remembered.
Visual aids build credibility by showing the listeners that the speaker cares enough to create the aids and by showing the listeners that the speaker has researched and is knowledgeable.
• Types of Visual Aids: graphs, charts, drawings, photographs, computer graphics, objects, models, yourself, etc.
What is a disadvantage of passing around a visual aid instead of showing the visual aid to all listeners at the same time?
If the visual aid reaches different individuals at different times and the presentation is ongoing, listeners are each processing the visual aid separately and missing a different portion of the presentation.
What is back-row comprehension?
The speaker should make sure that the back row can see and hear all information, including visual aids.
Chapter 19: Speaking in Groups
Small groups need a leader and participants. The leader determines the organization and duties of all.
Panel discussions need a moderator and participants. The moderator keeps the discussion moving smoothly, restrains long-winded or domineering panelists, draws out reluctant panelists, and fields questions from the audience.
Stand-up meetings tend to be shorter, decrease unnecessary conversations and decrease time away from other tasks, including work.
What is brainstorming? Brainstorming is rapidly contributing ideas with no fear of ridicule or judgment.
• What is the difference between a group presentation and an individual presentation? The parts would be the same but would be divided among the participants in a group presentation. Contingencies must be created for ill or absent team members.
7 Steps of the Reflective-Thinking Method
Define the problem
Analyze the problem
Establish criteria for evaluating solutions
Suggest possible solutions
Choose the best solution
Decide how to implement the solution
Decide how to test the solution