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From Idea to Course: Lesson Planning and Syllabus Creation
Transcript of From Idea to Course: Lesson Planning and Syllabus Creation
(on your own for 30 seconds)
(share your thoughts and build with a partner for 1 minute)
we'll come back as a group!) From Curriculum to Lesson:
TBP Chapters 9 and 10 By Hallie Bodey and Elliott Goodman The Perfect Lesson 1. Goals
3. Material and Equipment
6. Extra-Class Work Guidelines 1. Choosing what to teach
Pacing/Momentum and Timing While careful planning is usually sufficient for negotiating the other guidelines, problems with timing and pace tend to be harder to anticipate. And when such problems do arise, the result can be disconcerting for both the teacher and students. The keys to planning a well-timed and paced lesson are experience and extra activities. Samuel Owen When I taught Spanish, the textbook placed teaching the indirect object in the chapter previous to teaching the direct object. Holly Fernandez Planning is half the fun. However, I think for me the most difficult to adapt to would be variety. Creativity and spontaneity are my biggest weaknesses. As a teacher, I know that overcoming my lack of creativity will be an obstacle for me. Alice Kim Guidelines 3. Gauging Difficulty
4. Individual Differences
5. Student talk and Teacher talk When dealing with other subject matter, such as mathematics, it seems easier to gauge the students’ ability levels because they are easily quantifiable. When dealing with languages, not only will you tend to have a larger range of levels in one classroom, but it is a lot more difficult to pick out the levels of each student and therefore to plan for the class as a whole. Alexandra Pagano Selecting meaningful communicative activities and monitoring students will allow teachers to have a significant amount of student talk. Jorge Beltran Guidelines 6. Adapting to an established curriculum
7. Classroom lesson notes
8. Other issues? the problem was that the program was too demanding. Jorge Beltran I enjoy experimenting with different variations of approaching different problems, so the possibilities are many when it comes to creating tasks. Joao Dasilva most public middle schools in Shandong Province nowadays, there are 60-70 students in one classroom (80-90 in my middle school time), and they are in quite different levels, Yao Liu Continuing... 1. What role does class size play? Is that unique to language classrooms? Are there other factors that play a role in lesson planning and curriculum design?
2. A point was raised by Bruce and Alice about team teaching. Is it easier or harder to work in teams as a teacher? What are the benefits? What are some of the issues? to understand the different components of curriculum design
to learn the components of lesson planning Goals to understand the different components of curriculum design
brainstorm the meaning of curriculum
use personal experience to derive what questions we should ask in preparing curriculum
recognize the difference between objective and subjective needs
touch upon the difference between goals and objectives
use personal experience and material evidence to derive the purpose of a syllabus
use personal experience to understand problematizing and program evaluation Objectives Improve this Lesson! Spend 1 minute reading this lesson. Then, 4 minutes making improvements. What is curriculum? Goals and Objectives
Curriculum Design and Lesson Planning
Assessment, Evaluation, and Problematizing 1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?
2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes?
3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?
4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained? Tyler rationale Educational Setting
What is the character of the school and community?
Who are the learners? What is the range of ability and experience in your class?
Who will execute the curricular plan? What is the range of ability and experience amongst your faculty?
Governance of Course Content
Who determines the content? How much flexibility do individual teachers have?
What are the available methods of assessment? What is the method of grading? Situation Analysis What I had in mind was to brainstorm and exchange ideas, but Alice wanted to get things done. By the end of our hour-long meeting, we not only had both of our DQs posted, but also outlined our entire presentation and completed more than half of our PowerPoint slides. I had never been so efficient and organized with lesson planning on my own. It was refreshing. Bruce Tung slow down. One of my weaknesses is when I know I am short of time to complete everything on my lesson plan, I start to panic and rush through activities towards the end. Amanda Loy When students feel like they are respected and/or heard by their classmates and teachers, their motivation is boosted and the result can be enhanced learning. Amanda Loy SUBJECTIVE NEEDS OBJECTIVE NEEDS Needs analysis defined by learners
typically gathered through questionnaire results, personal interviews, teacher observation can be measured, quantified, or specified
analyzed through official test data, questionnaire results, or personal interviews To incorporate individual differences, teachers should take lots of efforts to know each student well. Who are stronger? Who are weaker? Who wants to be the leader? Who wants to be the follower? So I would think it’s a wise move to arrange a quiz, questionnaire or other assessment tools at the beginning of a course to find out the ability of the students. Educational Setting
What is the character of the school and community?
Who are the learners? What is the range of ability and experience in your class? Melody Chen one page of a lesson outline and notes is the best. A well prepared teacher actually has the details of the lesson content in mind, and on the one page note there should only be the outline and the procedure of a lesson. Melody Chen adapting to an established curriculum is what I find the easiest, once you get to know your students Maria Hamame You have up to 5 minutes to separate the cards into two piles: objective needs and subjective. Goals:
“broadly based aims and purposes in an educational context …
“associated with whole programs, courses”
“general statements concerning desirable and attainable program purposes and aims.” Objectives:
“must more specific than goals …
“usually refer to aims and purposes … of a lesson or an activity”
“specific statements that describe particular knowledge, behaviors, and/or skills” SUBJECTIVE NEEDS
learner attitude towards target language/culture
expectations students have of themselves and the course
purposes that students perceive for studying target language
specific skills students wish to focus on
preferences (styles, strategies) that students have about teaching OBJECTIVE NEEDS
demographic data on learners, including language ability, interests, etc.
needs expressed in terms of proficiency levels
language skills to be addressed
target contexts for use Needs analysis When a teacher provides the class syllabus on the first day of class I expect that the class will go according to what the syllabus says. Some of my teachers were never able to finish a class lecture on time and would have to spend the following week covering material from past weeks. This made it very difficult for us to follow the syllabus according to plan. - Alice Kim
As a college student in China, we do not have syllabus at the beginning of each semester. Most of the time, the professor just begin their lectures lesson by lesson. So we students do not have a clear image of what will happen in this class or the next class. The only thing we can do is to follow the professor’s oral instruction. - Yao Liu
In my opinion, a syllabus is usually seen as a “contract” between teacher and student. I wonder how many teachers actually discuss or have feedback about their syllabi. I feel that syllabi can convey messages between teacher and student and depending on the “tone” of the syllabi, it can help create a sense of community among students. - Amanda Loy “a sequential list of objectives, topics, situations, skills, and forms to be taught”
“helpful to carry out a review of options in materials (textbooks and other resources) that are already available”
3. Sequential list of topics/functions/skills organized into weeks or days
4. Matched references throughout to materials (textbook units, videos, etc.)
5. Assessments and grading criteria syllabus 1. Goals syllabus 2. Objectives syllabus 3. Sequential list of topics/functions/skills organized into weeks or days
4. Matched references throughout to materials (textbook units, etc.) syllabus 5. Assessments and grading criteria syllabus Keep this in mind for an impending activity! versus A year ago, I was hired as an Arabic teacher and curriculum developer for grades 5 and 6. In developing the curriculum I mistakenly relied too much on my experiences with adult monolingual Arabic learners. Not only were my new students a lot younger, but they were also bilingual. - Sam Owen
What went wrong was that most, if not all, the students were misplaced in the wrong level. I was teaching an intermediate class and they lacked beginner abilities. I constantly was backtracking to explain more basic concepts and trying to build right on top of that. - Holly Fernandez
In my experience, I have developed the curriculum for my classes twice. Both of them were good experiences, because I was given the chance to select the amount of content that I consider appropriate to cover the goals that were sketched to me, or that I had developed from a situation analysis. - Jorge Beltran
I believe that being test-oriented becomes a bad thing when all that teachers do is prepare students for the test, without any other meaningful application of the content learned. - Maria Hamame In my seminar class, my professor always told us to approach the curriculum or unit as top to bottom, meaning start with the big picture (the goal: what you want your students to do by the end of the year or unit) to the small picture (lessons and objectives: what will they be able to AFTER that lesson). This has worked for me so far when making up units and lessons because it helps me plan out what I want my students to know without making my unit longer than it should be. - Karla Mendoza Problematizing = anticipation! I once had to teach an intermediate class which was very mixed. My solution was to create two classes inside the same classroom. - Joao Dasilva
I could have anticipated the trouble if I had carefully taken some aspects into consideration. First, I should have doubted if the result that the previous teacher had shown me exclusively proved grammar competence. Second, people tend to be modest about themselves in Japan. Especially teenagers who care too much about peer pressure try to look like they underestimate themselves. So, I should not have relied solely on needs analysis. Also, I should have considered features of teenagers. Later my students told me that they were preoccupied with other things in life in the previous year and did not focus on studying because the entrance exams were further away. - Sachiko Aoki Program Evaluation = do it better next time! I was forced to adapt quickly ... in order to overcome my mistake of teaching a predetermined text-driven curriculum without having the text beforehand. In retrospect, this experience prepared me well for what was to come in the following semester of teaching. - Bruce Tung
It was imperative that the intervention teachers coordinated with the resource teacher to make sure our students were getting their instructional goals met. - Lenar Ruiz Goals to understand the different components of curriculum design
to learn the components of lesson planning Objectives to learn the components of lesson planning
define components of a perfect lesson and evaluate and improve a lesson based on those components
determine guidelines for lesson planning based on personal experience
examine issues in lesson planning Breen & Littlejohn (2000), p. 35 "Classroom Decision Making - Negotiation and Process Syllabuses in Practice."