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Volcanoes, Earthquakes, and Tsunamis

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k sturm

on 20 November 2015

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Transcript of Volcanoes, Earthquakes, and Tsunamis

Plate Tectonics
Plate tectonics is a theory which explains the structure of the Earth's crust divided into plates, that move slowly over the mantle underneath.
Identifying Plate Boundaries
Volcanoes from plate tectonics form when there is a crack in the plates, it forms when large quantities of heat escape in between the plates.
Most tsunamis are created by earthquakes generated in a subduction zone, where a oceanic plate is being forced down into the mantle by plate tectonics.
Many times there are effects from Plate Tectonics, such as tsunamis, earthquakes, faults, volcanoes, geysers, hot springs, and rift valleys. Most of these can be harmful to the space it hapens in.
Volcanoes, Faults, and Tsunamis
Effects of Plate Tectonics

1. Compressive stress happens at convergent plate boundaries where 2 plates move toward each other
2. Tensional stress happens at divergent plate boundaries where 2 plates are moving away from each other
3.Shear stress is experienced at transform boundaries where 2 plates are sliding past each other
WIPP, New Mexico Location
WIPP, New Mexico
WIPP is located fairly close to the salt-like substance, Brine. This brine caused them to relocate many times. There is no drinking water near the site. Volcanic activity is a very low risk. In 2012 sources have said to believe volcanic activity would rise in the Southwest, as a volcano erupted 1000 years ago, "that's practically yesterday."
Examples of Effects from Plate Tectonics:
-Appalachian mountains were created from the wrinkling of the earths crust caused by a collision of the North American and African Plates
-The dead sea in israel is a part of a rift system caused by plates that are pulling apart in that area
-The Indian subplate burrows under the Eurasian plate raising its edge which formed the Himalayan mountains
Plate Tectonics future problems:
-Portions of California will separate from North America
-Australia will become linked to Asia
-Africa will become separated from the Near East
Websites have shown that New Mexico has on average 10 earthquakes a year, that are usually between 3.5-4 in magnitude. The population density is around 2.09 million. No information was found about nuclear energy plants near the site or in New Mexico. There was also no information found about nearby aquifers or water sources near the site or in New Mexico.
WIPP is located near the salt-like substance, Brine. This brine caused them to relocate many times. There is no drinking water near the site. The volcanic risk is low, but in 2012 sources have said that volcanic activity would rise in the Southwest, since a volcano errupted in that region 1000 years ago, "that's practically yesterday."
WIPP, New Mexico
Historical data
Identifying Plate Boundaries
Alfred Wegner was the scientist who proposed the Continental Drift Theory in the early twentieth century. Simply put, his hypothesis proposed that the continents had once been joined, and over time had drifted apart.
When a
boundary occurs beneath oceanic lithosphere, the rising convection current below lifts the lithosphere creating a mid-ocean ridge.
Arthur Holmes, harnessing the mechanics of Mantle Convection to the theory of Continental Drift. Sir Arthur Holmes (1890-1965), the British geoligist who contributed to our understanding of Earth's age.
Convection currents
Convection currents are caused by the hot material at the deepest part of the mantle rising, then cooling, sinking again and then heating, rising and repeating the cycle over and over. When the convection currents flow into the mantle, they also move the crust. A conveyor belt in a factory moves boxes like the convection currents in the mantle moves the plates of the Earth.
Modern Data
By repeadetly measuring distances between specidic points, geologists can determine the movement along faults or between plates. The perations between GPS sites are already being measured regularly around the Pacific basin. By monitroing the interaction between the Pacific plate and the surrounding mostly continental plates.
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