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4.4.1 The Body's Response to Exercise

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Madison Sistevaris

on 10 May 2013

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Transcript of 4.4.1 The Body's Response to Exercise

4.4.1: The Body's Response to Exercise AT THE START AT THE FINISH 1O MINUTES AFTER THE RACE 1. What are the two main divisions of the peripheral nervous system? How do these systems relate to the three types of muscle? Two divisions of the peripheral nervous system is autonomic nervous system and somatic nervous system. The somatic nervous system controls voluntary muscles such as the skeletal muscle. The The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary muscles such as such as cardiac and smooth muscles. 2. Why is the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system active just before the race? Its general action is to mobilize the body's resources under stress; to induce the fight-or-flight response. However, constantly active at a basal level maintain homeostasis. When Mary is about to race, the pressure and the stress of having to do her best in the race makes her autonomic nervous system more active due to stress. 3. How does the nervous system influence other body systems at the start of the race? When they race is almost ready to begin, Mary's nervous system sends signals to her heart, causing her respiratory rate to increase. Since there is an increase in her heart rate, it is causing her to breath and sweat more in order to maintain a normal body temperature. 4. What is happening to the digestive system and urinary systems at the start if the race? Why? When Mary's stress level rises, her digestive system feedback starts to occur. The change in her urinary system is occurring due to her sweating. Since Mary's body is becoming stressed because of the race, her kidney's are working harder. The kidney's play a large role in the urinary system; they control a lot of the body's functions, such as the electrolytes and water balance in the body. 5. What is happening to Mary's blood glucose levels right before the race? Relate this change to energy and ATP. Since Mary has been constantly sweating, this causes dehydration at the beginning of the race. Mary has been sweating a lot because her glucose levels dropped. 6. Why does her mouth feel dry? At the start of the race, Mary has many different changes happening to her body. Her mouth is dry is because her salivary glands have started to slow down its production of saliva in the mouth. At some points, she is not secreting any saliva at all. 1. Running at a sprint puts new demands on Mary's body. What are these demands and how are they being met? During sprinting, your body uses the small amount of ATP and CP it stores to provide energy for the activity. If the activity continues, it begins to use other energy systems and it would not be considered sprinting. 2. Why do Mary's muscles feel like they are burning? Relate this burn to the information about ATP production. This is because your muscles begin to fatigue. Your body responds by producing lactic acid; symptoms include a tingly, burning sensation. Although this sensation may be a warning the your muscles are worn out, it DOES mean that your muscles are becoming stronger. 3. Why does Mary's respiratory rate increase as she starts to run? Provide two reasons. The rate increases because while she is running, she is losing more and more oxygen, so in order to gain that oxygen back, she must breath heavy in order to maintain the normal amount of oxygen levels. 4. How does Mary's increase in heart rate relate to cardiac output? They are related because an increase in the cardiac output is due to the increase of both the heart rate as well as the stroke volume. 5. How does the nervous system interact with the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to increase the blood flow to the muscles? The nervous system sends messages to the respiratory system to supply oxygen to the blood and remove carbon dioxide. This then lets the blood in the cardiovascular system go through the body. 1. Why does Mary’s body temperature start to increase? What is one of the main by-products of muscle contraction? Every time you contract your muscles during a workout, you produce energy. Your body uses about 75% of that energy in the form of heat. Heat from the muscles then moves to the blood, which circulates throughout your body, making your temperature rise. Lactic acid is one of the main by-products of muscle contraction. 2. How does sweat work for the body? Sweat is produced to help maintain homeostasis; it's the body's way of cooling itself. When the sweat gland is stimulated, the cells secrete a fluid that is mostly water and it has high concentrations of sodium and chloride and a low concentration of potassium. The source of this fluid is the spaces between the cells (interstitial spaces), which get the fluid from the blood vessels in the dermis. 3. What part of the brain help stimulate the sweat glands in the skin? The pituitary gland via the hypothalamus helps stimulate the sweat glands in the skin. 4. How does the urinary system deal with the loss of water through sweat? What did Mary doe before the race to alleviate this conflict? When you sweat, you're losing water from your body. The urinary system in turn reabsorbs more water, via the nephrons in the kidney, resulting in your urinating less. She made sure she was well-hydrated before the race. 5. Why does Mary feel a bit more comfortable during the middle of the race? Where is she drawing her energy at this point? Mary feels more comfortable during the middle of the race because she starts getting her energy from glucose, using glucose and glycogen to produce more ATP, through glycolyis. This makes her more comfortable because she is no longer using ATP. 1. What division of the autonomic nervous system is at work now? How does this division impact Mary's other body systems? 2. Explain how Mary could have lost four pounds in such a short period of time. Mary's body had many different chemical reactions within her body during the race. Since she had water in her body, she sweat all of her water out. Also, losing fats and sugars could have caused weight loss. 3. How will Mary's actions and her endocrine system work to bring her body back into normal water balance? Mary has lost a lot of water, which caused a loss of sodium. This resulted in her being dehydrated. 4. Why do Mary's muscles still feel so sore? Mary was dehydrated after the race and she could only drink water to help restore the electrolytes into her cells. Her muscles feel so sore because she was lacking oxygen producing lactic acid into her muscle tissues. 1. Why does Mary feel dizzy at the end of the race? She may feel some dizziness because she has low blood sugar or some plaque build-up (caused by cholesterol) on the inside walls of the arteries and disrupts the blood flow system. The dizziness can also be caused by her blood going back to it's normal flow. 2. Why is Mary’s heart rate and breathing rate so high even though she has stopped moving? This is because the heart and lungs are trying to regain oxygen to the rest of the body. The body needs to cool and warm down again; heart rate and the beeathing rate will gradually return back to its normal condition. 3. Why did Mary only sip water at the end of the race? What could happen if she drank water too fast? Madison Sistevaris Bailee Cheathams Jessica Freiburger Tak Jones 1 MINUTE INTO THE RACE HALFWAY THROUGH THE RACE The hypothalamus sends a message to the pituitary glands, which releases ADH. This travels in the blood to the kidneys and affects the tubules so more water is reabsorbed into the blood. As a result, she makes a smaller volume of more concentrated urine and the water level in the blood increases until it's back to normal. The division is the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system.
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