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Place Making

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Daniel Carey

on 27 October 2013

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Transcript of Place Making

Place Making
Jan Gehl
Daniel Carey + Daniel Stoll + Suanne Hackett + Bridget Ryan + Adam Murray
Kevin Lynch
Jan Gehl
-Architect and urban design consultant
-Danish: Based in Copenhagen
-Famous works:
Life between buildings (1971)
Public Spaces, Public life ( 1996)
Cities for people (2010)
-Gehl Architects: Copenhagen, Stockholm, Melbourne, Adelaide, London, New York

“First life, then spaces, then buildings – the other way around never works.” Jan Gehl
Types of activities:
Public space
Necessary:
Have to be done. Not influenced by the urban fabric

Optional:
If time is possible and a place allows

Social Activities:
Happen when others are present in public space. Resultant activity. It can be passive

Why Urban Design:
The quality of space and the rate of occurrence of outdoor activities relationship:


Chart plotting the relationship between the number of outdoor activities and frequency of interactions
Life Between Buildings
Quality of space:
Spectrum:
A) Multi story buildings, underground parking, cars, and long distances between buildings and function
B) Low, closely spaced buildings, accommodation for foot traffic, and good outdoor areas

Quality
Design Effects:
-How many people and occurrences
-The length of the activities
-What types of activities are possible



Video: The human scale
The Reading : Jan Gehl ‘Three Types of Outdoor Activities’ and ‘Life between Buildings’” (pp 364-370)
Bridget Ryan
Jan Gehl and Adelaide
A Case Study by Daniel Stoll
2002 Report
Main 2002 Recommendations
1. Capitalise on the unique qualities
2. A better city for walking
3. A better city for staying
4. Reduced traffic
5. A beautiful city
6. A diverse, safe and lively city

What of these could be applicable for Canberra?

Did the 2002 report do anything?
-$26 million in capital works over three years.
-Critics note most recommendations not implemented.
-Issue raised in 2007 Local Government elections
-A further report commissioned in 2011/12.



2002-2011 Major Achievements
-More people in the city
-A new tram line
-An upgraded North Terrace
-A growing bicycle culture

The 2011 Study Expanded the Study Area

2011 Challenges
-Un-programmed Park Lands
-Unintegrated river front
-A lack of street diversity
-Squares downgraded by traffic
-Traffic dominated city
-Large mono-functional inner city area
-City centre with a small heart
-Low quality/tired public spaces

-Are these similar issues to Canberra?


2011 - Five Broad Areas - Actions 1 & 2
1. Re-integrate the River Torrens
2. Celebrate the Park Lands


2011 - Five Broad Areas - Actions 3 & 4
3. Reclaim the Streets
4. Unify the squares



2011 - Five Broad Areas - Action 5
5. Develop the Built Form

But what do the locals say?
Adelaide colleagues reveal:
1. Still little reintegration of the River Torrens
2. Some Celebration of the Park Lands
3. Too little measures to reclaim the streets
4. Activities to Unify the Squares
5. Some work to Develop the Built Form.

Way forward:
New City of Adelaide Placemaking Strategy Stage 1 2013-15
http://www.adelaidecitycouncil.com/council/placemaking-strategy/
One city, many places

Videos
Gehl Architects release visionary study of Adelaide
http://insideadelaide.com.au/article/gehl-architects-release-visionary-study-of-adelaide/

Placemaking in Adelaide
http://vimeo.com/63381015

Shifting the focus on placemaking
http://insideadelaide.com.au/article/shifting-the-focus-on-placemaking/


Legibility
-Legibility is crucial in the urban setting
-Important when considering environments at the urban scale of size, time and complexity
-See the urban environment as perceived by its inhabitants

Techniques of Orientation
-Structuring and identifying the environment is a vital ability among animals

-Cues: sensations of colour, shape, motion, polarisation of light, smell, sound, touch, kinesthesia, sense of gravity, and perhaps electric or magnetic fields.


Maps of Memory and Observation
1. Paths – prominence through special use or activity
2. Edges – lateral references
3. Districts – structured with nodes, defined by edges, penetrated by paths, and sprinkled with landmarks
4. Nodes – decisions must be made at junctions resulting in heightened attention to this area
5. Landmarks – new, old, contrast, spatial prominence, contrast

The image of a given physical reality may shift its type with different circumstances of viewing eg the Parkway may be a path for the driver and an edge for the pedestrian

Maps of Memory and Observation
1. Paths – prominence through special use or activity
2. Edges – lateral references
3. Districts – structured with nodes, defined by edges, penetrated by paths, and sprinkled with landmarks
4. Nodes – decisions must be made at junctions resulting in heightened attention to this area
5. Landmarks – new, old, contrast, spatial prominence, contrast

The image of a given physical reality may shift its type with different circumstances of viewing eg the Parkway may be a path for the driver and an edge for the pedestrian

What the Maps Reveal
To consider the visual quality by studying the mental image of the urban environment held by its citizens.
-What people like about a place?
-How people imagine the neighbourhood
-What is important?
-What is exaggerated?
-What is left out?



What the Maps Reveal
-How an individual portrays space and community
-People’s relationship with the urban environment
-Perception of space
-How people create their own space
-Temporal perception based on mood, concerns and circumstance




Reading the Maps
-Different experiences: running, walking alone, with adults, walking with children; cycling; public transport; own vehicle
-Safety – environmental fears and dislikes
-Joy – areas of relaxations and enjoyments
-Throughfares & Barriers – no signaling infrastructure for pedestrians
-Psychological barriers





The Reading : Kevin Lynch ‘The Image of The Environment’ and ‘The City Image and Its Elements’” (pp 153-165)
Daniel Carey
Kevin Lynch
-Urban Planner and Author
-Born in Chicago: 1918 - 1984
-Studied at Yale University, Taliesin Studio (under Frank Lloyd Wright),
and MIT
-Worked in Greensboro as Urban Planner, until recruited by MIT, also ran a practice with Stephen Carr, Carr Lynch Associates - Cambridge
-Famous works:
Image of the City (1960)
What Time is this Place ( 1972)


Imageability
"that qualify in a physical object which gives it a higher probability of evoking a strong image in any given observer. It is the shape, colour, or arrangement which facilitates the making of vividly identified, powerfully structured, highly useful mental images of the environment."

The City and Its Elements
1. Paths
2. Edges
3. Districts
4. Nodes
5. Landmarks
"We are continuously engaged in the attempt to organise our surroundings, to structure and identify them. Various environments are more or less amenable to such treatment. When reshaping cities it should be possible to give them a form which facilitates these organising efforts, rather than frustrates them."

Element Overlaps
"Districts are structured with nodes, defined by edges, penetrated by paths and sprinkled with landmarks."

Reshaping Cities
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