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Transcript of Arctic Tundra
Arctic tundra is found across northern Alaska, Canada, and Siberia. This biome has long cold winters and short cool summers. The Arctic tundra has low precipitation (less than 10 inches per year) and dry winds. These conditions make the Arctic tundra a desert-like climate
One unique characteristic of the Arctic tundra is permafrost--ground that is permanently frozen. Because the permafrost has no cracks or pores, nothing can penetrate it--neither plant roots nor water. The surface layer above the permafrost thaws each summer. This layer is called the active layer. Thickness of the active layer depends on its location in the tundra. The more northerly the location, the thinner the active layer is.
Arctic tundra is characterized by lots of surface water. When snow melts, the water percolates through the active layer but is unable to penetrate the permafrost. Since the water has nowhere to go, the active layer becomes saturated and pools of water form on the surface. Another characteristic of the Arctic tundra is the limited amount of sunlight it receives due to the position of the Sun in the sky. Depending on the latitude, the Sun can remain below the horizon for up to 2 months, leaving the Arctic tundra in darkness. Although the sun remains in the sky 24 hours a day during the summer, it stays close to the horizon and provides only low intensity sunlight.
Five Levels of Organization
The keystone species of the arctic tundra is the arctic fox. The arctic fox is a keystone species because it gets eaten by polar bears, wolves, kittiwakes, and snowy owls. If the arctic fox was taken out of this ecosystem, the populations of those four organisms would decrease drastically.
Invasive species are damaging to an
ecosystem/community of the species, in many ways like interrupting and
interacting the food webs and chains within the Ecosystem, even making a chance
of extinction for many species. The invasive species also have a chance of
extinction due to the predator prey relationships between the invasive species
and many prey or other animals.
Primary Consumer 10%
Secondary consumers 1%
Tertiary consumers 0.1%
A Keystone species is a species that holds the environment together with out it the environment will suffer.
Loosestrife: Loosestrife have found their way, through the
transportation of their seeds, to the Alaskan Tundra, where they have been
classified as invasive species to the Alaskan Tundra and the area near it such
as Yukon. This can be damaging to the primary consumers that are used to eating
different plants, and might get unwell or die. Loosestrife is not poisonous but
is an aggressive invader.
As the bowheads migrate northward, following cracks in the ice known as leads, they are often accompanied by belugas. One beluga population migrates from the Bering Sea to the Beaufort Sea, as does the main population of bowheads. But the two whales are quite different.
The beautiful beluga, also known as the white whale because of its adult coloring, is of medium size as whales go, with a maximum length of 20 feet (6 m). It’s a toothed whale with a varied diet that includes fish, squid, shrimp, and marine worms. The beluga itself is prey for orcas, polar bears, and some indigenous Arctic people.
Polar bears are specialist species because they have adapted themselves to the arctic environment. They have developed a specific coat of fur to protect them against the below freezing environment. They also developed the ability to hunt for prey in land and water. Polar bears may eat anything it can hunt down but it will die in a hotter climate due to its special adaptations that only allow it to live in the arctic.
The difference between the two is that specialist have specifically adapted themselves to that environment. while generalist have a talent to adapt themselves when there is change in the environment to survive unlike the specialist.
Animal Species Adaptations
1) It has two massive tusks to help it drag its body on land.
2) It has no external ear to reduce the affects of the cold.
3) It has a massive and heavy body fat to help keep it insulated when it dives into the freezing water.
Plant Species Adaptations
Purple Saxifrage & Prairie Crocus
1) stays close to the ground to avoid damage from srong freezing wind.
2) Grows dark colored flowers to absorve more sunlight.
3) Grow fuzzy covering aroud the stem to protect the plant from harz wind.
Humans have a major impact on the arctic environment. evry day we burn fossil fuels and realease carbon dioxied into the atmosphere. This traps sun light in the earth causeing it to raise its temperature melting the ice in the arctic. This reduces the land enviorment and raiseing the water level. This affects all animals because they give birth on land and hunt.
Creating Change/ Reflection
We can do many things to reduce our impact in our enviorment like:
1) Use electric cras and not cars that run on fossil fuels
2) We can use solar, wind, and water to create electricity and run our homes.
3) We can also buy local goods to reduce fossil fuel use in shipping materials and goods.
4) we can start to share our knowldge to our community to make a big impact of change.
Works Cited Page
1) wolves have two layers of fur to keep warm.
2)It has shorter ears, nose, and legs to help it keep warm.
3) wolves can jog for miles with out taking a break, so they can cover large areas looking for prey.
the external surroundings in which a plant or animal lives, which tend to influence its development and behaviour
common ownership or participation
a group of individuals of the same species inhabiting a given area
any living biological entity, such as an animal, plant, fungus, or bacterium