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Biotech: Key Terms and Essential Questions
Transcript of Biotech: Key Terms and Essential Questions
sequence that can be compared to known data genetic bases by a
forensic scientists or a pathologist? 2. How are DNA sequences compared to each other? 3. How does bioinformatics and engineering compliment one another? 4. Why is bioinformatics the future of biotechnology? 5. Why is it important to know about the chemistry of DNA? 6. What two methods can be used to determine if transformation was
successful? 7. What are the ethical considerations regarding genetic engineering? 8. What are the regulatory issues related to genetic engineering?
9. What environmental conditions, both physical and biological,
must be considered during the scale up of an organism for
bioprocessing? 10. What approaches are taken to isolate and purify pharmaceutical
compounds generated by the biopharma industry? Bioethics Answer The study of the ethical and moral implications of new biological discoveries and biomedical advances, as in the fields of genetic engineering and drug research. Biomedical Engineering Answer Applies fundamentals of engineering to meet the needs of the medical community, the field encompasses the three basic categories of medical, clinical, and bioengineering. Biotechnical Engineering Answer The application of biological and engineering concepts to design materials and processes that directly measure, repair, improve, and extend living systems. Engineering Answer a) The profession of or work performed by an engineer. b) The knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences (biological and physical) gained by study, experience, and practice that are applied with judgment and creativity to develop ways to utilizes the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of humankind. Ethics Answer a) A set of moral principles or values or the principles of conduct governing an individual or a group. b) The rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the conduct of the members of a profession or group. Events Answer A significant occurrence or happening. Gene Answer a) A unit of hereditary code. b) A natural unit of the hereditary material, which is the physical basis for the transmission of the characteristics of living organisms from one generation to another. Genetic Engineering Answer a) The selective, deliberate alteration of genes. b) The direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes. c) The technique of removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule in order to change the information it contains. Impact Answer The effect or impression of one thing on another. Industry Answer a) Commercial production and sale of goods generally through a specific branch of manufacture and trade, such as biotechnical industry. b) The sector of an economy made up of manufacturing enterprises. Market Answer A subset of the population considered interested in the buying of goods or services. Milestone Answer An important event, as in a person's career, the history of a nation, or the advancement of knowledge in a field. Morals Answer The rules or habits of conduct with reference to standards of right and wrong. Scale Answer The scale of a map or enlarged or reduced timeline indicates the ratio between the distances on the line that correspond to the reality in number of years. Stock Portfolio Answer A collection of investments held by an individual or an institution which can be analyzed to determine gains and losses over time. Timeline Answer A representation or exhibit of key events within a particular historical period, often consisting of illustrative visual material accompanied by written commentary and arranged chronologically. Trade-offs Answer a) An exchange of one thing in return for another. b) Especially relinquishment of one benefit or advantage for another regarded as more desirable. Values Answer The principles, standards, or beliefs considered important and desirable by an individual. Amino Acid Answer a) The basic building block of proteins (or polypeptides). Containing a basic amino group, an acidic carboxyl (COOH) group and a side chain (R - of a number of different kinds) attached to an alpha carbon atom. b)The fundamental building blocks of a protein molecule. Angstrom Answer A unit of length equal to one ten-thousandth of a micron (10-4 micron) or 10-10 of a meter with adenine. Bioinformatics Answer a) Refers to the generation or creation, collection, storage (in databases), and efficient utilization of data or information from genomics, combinatorial chemistry, proteomics, and DNA sequencing research. b) Examples of the data or information that is manipulated and stored include gene sequences, biological activity or function, pharmacological activity, biological structure, molecular structure, protein-protein interactions, and gene expression products or amounts. Bioluminescence Answer The emission of visible light by living organisms such as the firefly and various fish, fungi, and bacteria. Biopharmaceutical Answer A therapeutic product created through the genetic manipulation of living things, including (but not limited to) proteins and monoclonalantibodies, peptides, and other molecules that are not chemically synthesized, along with gene therapies, cell therapies, and engineered tissues. Bioprocessing Answer Using organisms or biologically derived macromolecules to carry out enzymatic reactions or to manufacture products. Bioreactor Answer A container used for bioprocessing. BLAST Answer Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is a sequence comparison algorithm optimized for speed used to search sequence databases for optimal DNA sequence alignments. CODIS Answer Combined DNA index system. DNA Analysis Answer The testing of DNA samples that exists on the evidence collected from a crime scene. DNA Fingerprinting Answer DNA fingerprinting is an individual's unique sequence of DNA base pairs, determined by exposing a sample of the person's DNA to molecular probes. DNA Replication Answer The process of making an identical copy of a section of duplex (double-stranded) DNA, using existing DNA as a template for the synthesis of new DNA strands. Double Helix Answer The normal structural configuration of DNA consisting of two helices winding about the same axis. Electroporation Answer A process utilized to introduce a foreign gene into the genome of an organism. Forensics Answer Involves the collection, analysis, and interpretation of evidence to solve crimes; its purpose is to create doubt as to the testimony of the witness. Forensic Scientist Answer A professional that analyzes and interprets DNA samples as well as other forms of evidence collected from a crime scene. Good Manufacturing Practices Answer Regulations that describe the methods, equipment, facilities, and controls required for producing human and veterinary products, medical devices, and processed foods. Microinjection Answer Is a technique for introducing a solution of DNA into a cell using a fine microcapillary pipette. Pathogen Answer Refers to a virus, bacterium, parasitic protozoan, or other microorganism that causes infectious disease by invading the body of an organism (e.g., animal, plant, etc.) known as the host. Plasmid Answer An autonomous self-replicating genetic particle is usually of circular double-stranded DNA. Process Engineer Answer The operator of a complex chemical or biological plant. Protecting the Crime Scene Answer Involves taping off the area that the crime occurred and monitoring the people entering the crime scene as evidence is collected. Protein Answer A large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific order, required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's cells, tissues, and organs. Transformation Answer The modification of a genome by the external application of DNA from a cell of different genotype. Anaerobic Metabolism Answer The chemical process of maintenance of cells without air or oxygen. Antifoam Agent Answer A chemical added to the fermentation broth to reduce surfacetension and counteract the foaming (bubbles) that can be caused bymixing, sparging, or stirring. Aquaponics Answer The combination of fish farming and growing plants without soil (hydroponics). Aseptic Answer a) Sterile, free from bacteria, viruses, and contaminants such as foreign DNA. b) When surfaces are free of disease-causing microorganisms. Batch Culture Answer A large-scale cell culture in which cell inoculum is cultured to a maximum density in a tank or airlift fermenter, harvested, and processed as a batch. Biomass Answer a) The dry weight of an organism or organisms. Can only be experimentally determined by completely drying (and therefore killing) the organism and then massing it on a balance. b) The total dry weight of all organisms in a particular sample, population, or area. Carbohydrate Answer a) A compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with twice as many hydrogens as oxygens; sugar or starch. b) Any of a group of organic compounds that includes sugars, starches, celluloses, and gums and serves as a major energy source in the diet. Chemostat Answer A growth chamber that keeps a bacterial culture at a specific volume and rate of growth by limiting nutrient medium and removing spent culture. Enzymes Answer Proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions by causing or speeding up reactions without being changed in the process themselves. Fermentation Answer A process used to grow bacteria or yeasts in liquid culture. Fermentor Answer A bioreactor used to grow bacteria or yeasts in liquid culture. Fluid Power Answer Energy transmitted and controlled by means of a pressurized fluid, either liquid or gas. The term fluid power applies to both hydraulics and pneumatics. Glycolysis Answer The metabolic breakdown of glucose and other sugars that releases energy. Hydraulics Answer Uses pressurized liquid, for example, oil or water. Incubator Answer An apparatus in which environmental conditions, such as temperature and humidity, can be controlled; often used for growing bacterial cultures. Media Answer A sterile preparation made for the growth, storage, maintenance, or transport of microorganisms or other cells. Molarity Answer Molar concentration of a solution, usually expressed as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution. Oil Eating Microbes Answer Bacteria that eat oil, hydrocarbons, and other contaminants. Pneumatics Answer Uses compressed air or other neutral gases. Renewable Energy Answer Energy that is captured from on-going natural processes such as production of fuels such as ethanol from biomass. Scale-up Answer To take a biopharmaceutical manufacturing process from the laboratory scale to a scale at which it is commercially feasible. Substrate Answer A surface on which an organism grows or is attached. Artery Answer Muscular-walled and elastic-walled blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the body. Atrioventricular Valve Answer Prevents return of blood to the atrium. Atrium Answer Chambers of the heart in which blood is received from the body before being passed to the ventricles. Axial Answer The head and thorax regions of the body including upper extremities. Ball and Socket Joint Answer A multi-axial synovial joint in which a more or less extensive sphere on the head of one bone fits into a rounded cavity in the other bone, as in the hip joint. Bicuspid Valve Answer Situated between the left atrium and the left ventricle. Biocompatibility Answer The use of various materials to replace human components without adverse results. Capillary Answer The smallest of the body's blood vessels. Case Study Answer A broad-based analysis of an engineering problem. Condylarthrosis Answer A joint, like that of the knee formed by a rounded surface at the extremity of the bone. Data Answer Information (measurements or statistics) used as a basis for reasoning, discussion, calculation or transmission. Design Answer Translation of a concept into a satisfactory, producible, salable form. Diarthroses Answer Free joint movement is possible. ECG Answer Electrocardiogram is a test that records the electrical activity of the heart, shows abnormal rhythms, and detects heart muscle damage. FDA Answer Federal Drug Administration. Gliding Joint Answer A synovial joint in which the opposing surfaces are nearly planes and in which there is a slight motion, as in the metacarpal joints. Hinge Joint Answer A unilateral joint in which a broad, transversely cylindrical convexity on one bone fits into a corresponding concavity on the other, allowing motion of one plane only, as in the elbow. Joint Answer Area of contact between bones. Mitral Valve Answer The valve that controls blood flow between the left atrium and left ventricle in the heart. Myocardial Infarction Answer Result of permanent damage to an area of the heart muscle. Nanotechnology Answer A branch of science and engineering devoted to the design and production of extremely small electronic devices and circuits built from individual atoms and molecules. Orthopedic Implant Answer Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries or diseases. P Wave Answer The first upward wave in an ECG which indicates the atrial depolarization. Pacemaker Answer An electronic device that is surgically implanted into the patient’s heart and chest to regulate heartbeat. Pericardium Answer Membranous sac surrounding the heart and major blood vessels connected to it. Product Liability Answer Having a legal responsibility for the failure of a product. Pulse Answer a) The rate at which the heart beats. b) The rhythmic contraction and expansion of the arteries with each beat of the heart. QRS Complex Answer The second wave of an ECG and it is associated with the depolarization of the ventricles. Reliability Answer The probability of satisfactory operation of the product in a given environment over a specified time interval. Saddle Joint Answer A biaxial synovial joint in which the double motion is affected by opposition of two surfaces as in the thumb. Semilunar Valve Answer Half moon shaped valve that prevents blood from flowing back into the heart. Sinoatrial Node Answer The pacemaker of the heart. Stent Answer A slender thread, rod, or catheter inserted into a tubular structure, such as a blood vessel, to provide support during or after anastomosis. Syntharthroses Answer No movement of joint. T Wave Answer The third wave of an ECG and it indicates ventricular repolarization. Answer Tricuspid Valve Controls blood flow from the right atrium into the right ventricle. Answer Ventricle Chamber in the heart that receives blood from the atrium of the same side and pumps it into the arteries. Dilemma Answer a) A choice between equally unpleasant courses of action. b) A situation that requires a choice between options that are or seem equally unfavorable or mutually exclusive. Key Terms 1. What is biotechnical engineering? 2. How did important events build on previous knowledge? 3. Which events, people, or ideas related to biotechnical engineering are most important to remember? Why? 4. What industries work with or mainly develop biotechnically engineered products? 5. Explain how biotechnical-engineered products impact the development and production of products and services that may improve or extend life? 6. Explain how world events impact biotechnological advances? 7. What areas of biotechnical engineering have a direct impact on your personal life and how does that affect you? Essential Questions Key Terms 1. How can the rate of fermentation be measured? 2. What are some limitations in using end product analysis when measuring biological processes? 3. How can microorganisms move people or cargo? 4. What are the important considerations in running a chemostat? 5. How can waste be removed in a bioreactor? 6. How can energy conversion efficiency be measured? How does this process compare to the method used in your yeast mobile? 7. What types of vehicles can be fueled by renewable energy? Essential Questions Key Terms Essential Questions 1.Who benefits the most from an engineer’s design of medical equipment? Why? 2.How do the following play a role in the designing of medical devices or environments?
•Medical support staff 3.What is product liability? How could it affect an engineer’s work? 4.How does product liability relate to the concept of over engineering a design? 5.How does an engineer utilize a Product Development Lifecycle for improving biomedical devices? 6.What are the five functions of the skeletal system? 7.What two major functions do muscles perform in addition to movement? 8.How does the muscular system assist the skeletal system in body movements? 9.How could an engineer utilize knowledge of the skeletal system and muscular system in designing joint replacements? 10.What are the major divisions and subdivisions of the skeletal system? 11.What are the major types of joints? 12.What body region represents each type of joint? 13.How would an engineer apply his/her knowledge of the skeletal system to the workplace? 14.How does myocardial infraction or heart attack affect the pathway of blood flow and the functions of the heart? 15.How do the electrical signals correspond to the cardiac cycle? 16.What are some examples of prosthetic devices that are used for correcting cardiac defects? 17.What are some examples of prosthetic devices that are used for monitoring cardiac defects or functions? 18.What aspects about cardiac physiology and anatomy are the most significant for the engineering of cardiac prosthetic devices? Essential Questions Key Terms 1. Project documentation involves many components. What are the components and why are they necessary for effective communication? 2. Why is laboratory safety so important? 3. In the event of an emergency in the laboratory, what steps should you take to keep yourself or your classmates safe? 4. If you were to measure incorrectly, how would you know and what could happen to your experiment results? 5. What is the difference between accuracy and precision? 6. How does accuracy and precision play a vital role in a design process? Project documentation includes the keeping of records during a project, and the presentation of those records in such a way that your project could be repeated in the future using those records as instructions. It is important to do this because, as an engineer, ones records are essential to making the product they design commensurable on a large scale. Laboratory safety is important because it is what keeps a person safe from dangerous chemicals or other objects during an experiment. In the event of a potentially dangerous situation, it is best to stay clear of the situation if any, rinse any chemicals in a chemo-shower, put out any fires with the appropriate fire extinguisher, and report the incident to the instructor. Incorrect measurements can cause faulty results in an experiment. One way to tell if there is an incorrect measurement is by doing multiple experiments with the same measurements and figuring our if the results are the same. Accuracy is the ability to get similar measurements in multiple trials and precision is the ability to get the same measurement in multiple trials. Without precision or accuracy, test results would be so inconclusive that experiments would be a waste of time and nothing would be created with the most efficiency possible. Biotechnical engineering is using biological and engineering concepts to fix and improve living systems Previous knowledge was used in those important events to help the event get a foundation for experimentation that would lead to the event becoming successful. People like Aristotle paved the way for advancements in the biotechnology field and events like the creation of penicillin revolutionized the world. The food industries is one of the biggest industries that make biotechnically engineering products. Biotechnical-engineered products can make production much faster and they can extend life by eliminating dangerous naturally occurring pathogens in the food. World events have an impact on biotechological advances because whenever something major happens, all the people affected must be taken care of. An example would be the viruses. Whenever a virus starts to become a pandemic in the world, researchers work to engineer a vaccine. One area of biotechnical engineering that has a direct impact on me is genetic engineering of food. Although the food is usually safe, sometimes the food can have some negative effects on our health. Fermentation rate can be measured by the amount of carbon dioxide that is produced. Since biological process are always changing, end product analysis is not always going to yield results. Waste products can be used to directly or indirectly power a vehicle. Elimination of contamination of the measured sample, safeguards against measuring the wrong waste product and accuracy of measured samples with theoretical products. Allowing the gases to escape, distillation of alcohol from the wastes and physical removal of the wastes. Compare the measured products to the theoretical products. The actual amount of gas produced in the yeast mobile was difficult to determine because it was not an actual closed system. Almost any vehicle can be fueled using renewable energy if it has a part to convert the energy to power. The patients using the medical equipment benefit most. Engineers apply engineering principles and knowledge of materials to the healthcare field. This could include designing computer and mathematical models and to design and test prototypes, working closely with medical professionals, conducting research, provide technical data and safety assurances among others. Physicians are important to communicate the needs of the device for the best interest of the patient; in effect the physician is an advocate for the patient. The design of the medical equipment must be such that nurses can easily use the equipment they need on a daily basis. Keyboards, controls, etc. must be human – oriented for ease and accuracy of use. Medical technicians must be able to understand the equipment they use and be able to train others on its use. Therefore the design process must account for the ease of use for the medical technician. Patients, by default, set the criteria for the design of the product (sizing, tissue compatibility, ease of replacement, etc.) The design of the equipment should be easy enough for support staff to use Product liability is the area of law in which manufacturers, distributors, suppliers, retailers, and others who make products available to the public are held responsible for the injuries those products cause. Product liability is taking blame for anything that goes wrong with a product. Engineers must take multiple measures to make sure the product is the most reliable thing that they can create. Over engineering is when a product is more robust or complicated than necessary for its application, either (charitably) to ensure sufficient factor of safety, sufficient functionality, or due to design errors. Over engineering is desirable when safety or performance on a particular criterion is critical. Since product liability is so important in the medical field, over engineering is an additional guarantee of product safety. Biomedical devices are often rapidly developed to hit the market quickly, so the product development lifecycle is sped up as much as possible. Also, many existing devices are improved as new and better materials are developed and as new technologies are developed. At the point of “continuous development” an engineer would look at how the existing product can be improved. Provide support for tissues and organs Provide shape for the body Protect the internal organs Produce in red bone marrow the blood cell or hemopoiesis Allow for storage of calcium by maintaining homeostasis of blood calcium Work with muscles to allow for movements Smooth muscles allow organs to function (swallowing), cardiac muscle pumps blood. Skeletal muscles contract and relax in unison to move the skeleton. ROM measurements are critical as well as muscle attachment sites. Axial skeleton (cranium and vertebrae) and the appendicular skeleton (all other bones). Immoveable, slightly moveable and freely moveable. Cranium; immoveable. Vertebral column; slightly moveble. Shoulder; freely moveable. Knowing ergonomics and comfortable and allowable body movements is important to design. The heart muscle is deprived of blood and does not contract as it should. The polarization, depolarization and repolarization of the atria and ventricles in proper sequence allows the heart to pump blood effectively. Stents and Valves. Pace makers and ECG’s. The electrical conduction of the chambers and muscle tissue of the heart, the measurements of valves and chambers of the heart. The DNA samples should be taken from a known organism by a technician so its source is known. They are compared by cataloging known nucleic acid samples. Engineering techniques allow the bioinformatics field to grow and develop and it increases the beneficial use of bioinformatics. Bioinformatics is the combination of computer technology with the science of biological information. Engineering procedures require knowledge of DNA so the engineering techniques will be successful. Comparing transformed organisms to known, untransformed control organisms and comparing the effects of transformation with the gene expression in the original organism. Consequences of actions need to be considered for the individual, for others, and for society as a whole. The human harm or potential human harm resulting from genetic engineering and potential future effects of genetic engineering need to be considered. pH, temperature, light, waste materials and local environmental effects. Comparing the compounds to a known standard to ensure quality, testing and retesting the compounds to ensure authenticity and taking random samples of the compounds during the manufacturing process.