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Developmental Psychology: Introduction & Methods
Transcript of Developmental Psychology: Introduction & Methods
Proceeds from the relatively simple and global to the more complex and specific
Is relatively enduring Chronological Approach Based on age
Lifespan divided into developmental stages that most people share 4 common goals
To describe what people are like at different ages and how they change as a result of age
To explain what causes developmental change
To predict what an individual will be like at a later point in development
To use knowledge to enhance the quality of children’s lives. Influence children’s development. Development Periods in the Human Lifespan Prenatal period: Conception to birth
Infancy: Birth to 18-24 months
Toddlerhood: 12-15 months to 2-3 years
Early childhood: 2-3 years to 5-6 years
Middle childhood: 6 years to ~12 years
Adolescence: ~12 years to 18-21 years
Young adulthood: 18-21 years to 40 years
Middle adulthood: 40 years to 60-65 years
Older adulthood: 60-65 years to death Interactive Approach Views human development as the result of several interacting forces Biology Environmental factors Sociocultural context Physical domain Domains of Human Development Context
Historical views of childhood
Cultural influences on childhood Cognitive Domain Personality Domain Sociocultural Domain (video) Socialization
Enculturalization those aspects of development that involve changes in physical shape and size, as well as changes in brain structure, sensory capabilities, and motor skills those aspects of development that involve the acquisition of skills in perceiving, thinking, reasoning, and problem solving as well as the intricate development and use of language those aspects of development that involve acquiring relatively stable and enduring traits, as well as a sense of self as an individual the teaching by parents and others about how to fit in and function in society learning about culture by observing and absorbing rather than being taught Theoretical Frameworks Theory Biological views Genetics Developmental Neuroscience Evolution Psychodynamic approach Psychosocial Theory Behavioral views Behaviorism Classical Conditioning Operant
Conditioning Social Learning Theory Cognitive Views Piaget Adaptation Assimilation Accommodation Schemes Vygotsky Guided participation Integrating theoretical approaches Systems approaches Bioecological model Descriptive Methods Scientific Approach to the Study of Human Development Case studies Systematic observation Questionnaires & Surveys Psychological tests Studying development across time Longitudinal design Cross-sectional design Sequential Cohort design Correlation Experimental approaches Random assignment Independent variable Dependent variable Replication Ethics Protection from harm Informed Consent Privacy & Confidentiality Knowledge of results Beneficial treatments