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Morton Fried

Highly influential American anthropologist
by

Elena Williams

on 18 September 2012

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Transcript of Morton Fried

Morton H. Fried Born March 21, 1923 in the Bronx, New York
He was married to Martha Nemes and they had two children.
His daughter, Nancy Foster followed in his footsteps and also became an anthropologist. His son, Elman Fried was a writer and filmmaker.
Attended the City College of New York
He was originally an English major but changed to anthropology.
Served in the U.S. Army during World War II under the Army Specialized Training Program.
The Army sent him to Harvard to learn Chinese and he went to specialize in the anthropology of China.
Earned his Ph.D at Columbia in 1951. Personal Information He began his ethnological research in maninland China, in 1947 to 1948.
His research resulted in his book The Fabric of Chinese Society.
In 1963 to 1964 he started a study of the clan associations in Taiwan.
In 1981 he was invited by the People's Republic of China to act as a Consultant to high government officials on implementing exchanges of scholars and students between the United States and China. Fieldwork Cultures will progress, in a pristine environment, in the following way:

Stage A (egalitarian organization) -> Stage B (rank society) -> Stage C
(stratification society) -> Stage D (state society) On the Evolution of Social Stratification
and the State In these societies, the only difference in status are based on skill, age, and gender. Such groups are usually hunter-gatherer,
participating in reciprocal exchange. There is no prestige, wealth, or power differences. Egalitarian Rank In these societies, there is a hierarchy of prestige differences not linked to age, gender, or ability. Stratification In these societies, access to key resources is linked to prestige State Societies in which power is organized on a supra-kin basis or as a society integrated by a bureaucracy that uses force. Two Forms of Resource access, based on social status: Privileged Impaired Access is unrestricted A complex series of permissions are required for permitted levels of access. Fried saw the evolution of social stratification as driven by the efficient use of energy and the ability for all members to equally access the resources brought into the society.

This emergent stratification of society, with its end result as a state, is dependent upon unequal allocation of resources among the different levels of people in society.

This unequal allocation of resources arises as energy is more efficiently used.

Private land ownersjip ensues in that private land ownership only serves to further increase the stratification and magnitude of unequal appropriation of capital within society. Transition Theories Fried is best known for his contributions to the fields of social and political theory. How are Fried's theories on societies similar to Marx, and how are they different? Questions
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