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Late Adulthood - Transition to Retirement

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on 28 August 2013

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Transcript of Late Adulthood - Transition to Retirement

The General Trends in Retirement
Stages of Retirement (Robert Atchley,1976)
General Trends in Late Adulthood
Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood
Psychosocial Stages of Development for Late Adulthood (Erik Erikson)
Transition to Retirement
Shift in Roles
Maintaining Identity
Social Status
Relationships in Late Adulthood
Transition to Retirement
Barriers to Smooth Transition to Retirement
Effective Strategies to Minimize & Avoid Obstacles to Transition
Late Adulthood -Transition to Retirement
Interpersonal Vs. Intrapersonal in Late Adulthood
Mental Health
Coping Styles
Personality Traits
Stages of Retirement (Robert Atchley, 2000)
Phase 1: Pre-Retirement
Phase 2: Retirement
The "Honeymoon" Path
The "Immediate Retirement Routine" Path
The "Rest & Relaxation" Path
Phase 3: Disenchantment
Phase 4: Reorientation
Phase 5: Retirement Routine
Phase 6: Termination of Retirement
Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood
Physical Changes
Changes in body systems
Slowing of responses
Visual and hearing problems
Chronic conditions due to lifestyle factors
Teeth loss affects nutrition
Three Common Retirement Experiences
1. High Distress -
a small group who report debilitating experiences e.g. major health problems, the loss of a partner, or other family tragedy.
2. Work as a lifestyle -
a group whose interests & social networks are linked to work, & are reluctant to give these up.
3. Life beyond work -
a group who enjoyed their work but chose retire willingly, often earlier than their peers in order to have time to enjoy other activities.
Loss of Identity/Loss of Roles
During the transition to retirement many experience a loss of identity.
From the ages of 50-75 many social roles may be lost including that of the worker, friend, parent, and spouse after death of the partner.
As a result...
Long-term identity can be severely traumatized.
Some retirees may sink into depression
Moving/Loss of Friendships
According to the Bureau of Statistics most people will have less income when they retire
Many people are forced to move away from home
Moving can lead to the loss of long-time friendships & support networks
Home Maintainer
For both men & women this role may be engaged in with more energy & bring more satisfaction during transition to retirement
More time to put into home maintenance and improvement to make their home feel more comfortable
Changes made at home help improve sense of self & establish a new identity
Successful Transition to Retirement may be achieved through:
Role Continuity Theory -
Predicts that retirement will be stressful because of the discontinuity of important roles.
An overall decline in well-being will occur.
However, successful transition to retirement can occur if...
People maintain the same activities & relationships post retirement as they did pre-retirement.
Successful Transition to Retirement may be achieved through:
Role Acquisition -
During the transition to retirement people can maintain or improve their well-being by developing new interests & learning new things.

During the middle years the deliberate cultivation of new roles after the age of 50 can help people with the transition to retirement & Role-Flexibility.
Part-time Worker/Self-employer
Reducing work to part-time or becoming self-employed may help the transition to retirement more smoothly.
The rich may choose this simply because they want to.
The poor may be forced to do so because they lack pension coverage.
Women & minorities are more likely to utilize bridge jobs.
For men in particular, retirement can mean the acquisition of the role of the homemaker.
Can lead to domestic responsibilities such as cooking, shopping, & household chores.
If partner continues to work it can lead to the man feeling shame due to loss of the "breadwinner" role.
Can become dependent upon his partner & become lonely.
Participant in Leisure Activities
Participation in leisure activities can help ease the transition to retirement, for example -
The satisfaction of creative activity & new experience once obtained from work may be achieved through hobbies.
The prestige that is felt from success in work may be secured from hobbies.
A sense of worth & self-respect that previously came from work may now be found in music or art
Common increased roles may include:
Community Citizen
Participant of Leisure Activities
Home Maintainer
Spend more time together
Carer of spouse
Marriage may become more satisfying after retirement
Increased social interaction with family members & friends
More social interaction through groups & volunteer work
This role has a highly positive impact on the transition to retirement
Can decrease anxieties associated with retirement & loss of one's role-identity as a worker
View this role as an acceptable substitute to their work identity
Grandparents are more likely to report a preference for retiring early as a way of shifting the balance & focusing on other social roles
Grandparent role provides profound meaning & enjoyment.
Community Citizen
More time & energy to read, attend meetings, & serve
More time to be a friend, neighbour, and member of social cliques
May get similar satisfaction from civic activities compared to that previously received from work
Attend church more frequently, spend more time on reading the bible, & get involved in church activities

Retirement is a “process” (requiring planning and adjustment) and a “life stage” (lasting multiple years)
Robert Atchley (2000) developed six descriptive phases of retirement that represents a transitional process
These phases may not apply to everyone, however they do provide a guide for individuals transitioning into retirement
Adjusting to Retirement
Part-time worker/
Participant in Leisure Activities
Common acquired roles may include:
Potential Barriers to Successful Transition to Retirement
As a result of retirement, & the subsequent shift of roles, an individuals’ home dynamics can change which in turn can often negatively impact relationships with partners & spouses as well as that with other family members living in the same home as the retiree.
Potential Barriers to Successful Transition to Retirement
The change of financial situation can often be an area of a retirees’ life which can cause some anxiety & distress due to no longer receiving a wage. This experience can be especially heightened if this change in financial status leads to the individual having to relocate home as a result of this change. Additionally, some individuals in this population group upon looking to relocate their home can also find it difficult to find a suitable & affordable retirement home to live in which only further impacts the individuals stress levels.
Strategies for Successful Transition
Effective pre-retirement planning can facilitate an individuals successful transition to retirement by:
Reducing anxiety
Decreasing adjustment difficulties
Increasing the retirees satisfaction with their retirement
Increasing the retirement satisfaction of the partner/spouse and other close family members
Pre-retirement Planning Should include:
Investigation into potential occupations post-retirement
Education and strategies for maintaining health (physical and psychological) post-retirement
Learning and developing skills that may be transferable post-retirement
Discuss retirement plans with partner/spouse, close family members, friends and employer (where applicable)
A schedule to slowly scale back responsibilities at work leading up to retirement
Information about relevant support groups and local counseling services
Pre-retirement Planning Should include:
Organization of a power of attorney
Investigation and organization into personal life insurance
A retirement financial plan and budgets
Information on the eligibility criteria, payment rates and how to apply for the government pension
Information on how the individual can access money from their superannuation funds
Contemplation of where the individual would like to live post-retirement and subsequent investigation into options available to them
Preparation or revision of a will
Age at Retirement

Main Reasons for Retiring

Main factor influencing decision about when to Retire
General Trends in Late Adulthood
Efforts to combat ageism are making headway, thanks to the growing number of active, healthy older adults
Life expectancy has increased dramatically from efforts toward reducing death rates from diseases affecting older persons.
In general, life expectancy is greater in developed countries, and among Caucasian than among Indigenous, and among Women as compared to Men.

Casey Payne, Emma Middlebrook & Rachel Rowston
Thank You!!
Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood
Cognitive Development
CNS slows down
Working memory and the ability to recall
Perceptual speed declines
Ability to perform IADL’s

Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development Stage 8: Integrity Vs Despair
Psychosocial Conflict: Integrity versus despair
Major Question: "Did I live a meaningful life?“
Basic Virtue: Wisdom
Important Event(s): Reflecting back on life
What was the average age at retirement from the work force for people aged 45 years and over in 2010-11?

What are the 3 most common factors influencing when to retire?

What is the major question people ask themselves in Erikson’s 8th stage of psychosocial development?
Full transcript