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Fish Body Systems
Transcript of Fish Body Systems
directly related to its lifestyle.
A steamlined body shape helps
fish move through water.
Laterally compresseed bodies are good for
leisurely swimming around coral reefs,
kelp beds, or rocky reefs, but are still efficient.
Body shapes can be especially useful for
An irregular shape is often an excellent means
of concealment. Coloration Some bony fishes use color for camouflage.
The colored pigments in body fishes are mostly found in special cells in the skin called chromatophores.
Fishes may also have structural colors that result when a special surface reflects only certain colors of light.
Colors can tell us a lot about fishes.
Colors can also advertise the fact that they are dangerous. Locomotion Fishes swim to obtain food, escape
from predators, and find mates.
Most fishes swim with a rhythmic
side-to-side motion of the body or tail
The rhythmic contractions are produced by
bands of muscle called myomeres.
Sharks tend to sink because they lack the
bouyant swim bladder of most bony fishes.
Most bony fishes have a swim bladder, they do
not have to rely on their pectoral fins to provise
life. Feeding Most sharks are carnivores, they feed
on both large and small fish.
Some deep-water sharks subsist mainly
serveral species of cartilaginous fishes
are filter feeders.
Whale sharks have filter plates made
of modified placoids scales.
Whale sharks feed in warm water on
small fishes, squids, and planktonic
crustaceans Respiratory Sysyem Fishes obtain oxygen dissolved in
water and release carbon dioxide
from their blood through paired gills
Fishes get oxygen they need by extracting it from water
Expansion and contraction of the walls of the pharynx and the gills slits assist in the irrigation of gills in sharks
When lampreys and other jawless fishes feed by sucking on other fishes the passage of water through their mouth is blocked.
most bony fishes have a more efficient mechanism to bring in water to the gills Digestion After being swallowed, food passes
through the pharynx and a short tube
called the esophagus into the stomach
The Pyloric caeca secretes digestive
The pancreas secretes other digested enzymes
Another important organ in digestion is the
liver, which secretes bile.
All undigested exits through the anus, or the cloaca Circulatory system All fish have two chambered hearts that
is located below the gills.
The deoxygenated blood comes into the first
chamber of the heart.
It is then pumped to the second chamber, then to the
gills, where gas exchange takes place.
The oxygenated blood is then carried by arteries to
The arteries branch out into capillaries and the body
gets its nutrients, it then starts all over again. Regulation of the internal
Environment In contrast to most marine organisms,
the blood of marine bony fishes is less
salty than seawater.
To replace lost water, they swallow
Cartilaginous fishes use a different
approach to salt balance.
In most animals urea is toxic and is
excreted, but sharks and other cartilaginous
fishes excrete only small amounts. Nervous System and
Sensory Organs Vertebrates have the most complex and advanced nervous system of any animal group
Most fishes have a highly developed sense of smell, which they use to find food, mates, predators, and sometimes their way home
Fishes detect other chemical stimuli with taste buds located all over their bodies.
A fish focuses their eyes by moving closer or farther away from the fish.
Fish can also perceive sound waves with their inner ear. Behavior Nearly all aspects of the lives
of fishes involve comlex behavoir
to adapt to light and currents,
to find food and shelter, and avoid
Some fishes establish territories, to
protect these territories the fish
use a variety of aggressive behaviors
Many fish form well-defined groups,
or schools. These schools are used
to provide protection against predators
Another fascinating behavoir of fish is
how they migrate from one place to
There are many amazing examples of
how fish migrate to survive including
eels, salmon, and anadromous fish. Reproduction and
Life History The reproduction system of
fishes is relatively simple.
The timing of reproduction is
controlled for the most part by
The release of sex hormones is
triggered by environmental
factors such as day length,
temperature, and the availablility
Many fish have to be together at the right time to breed, some fish change color to show they are ready to breed.
Fish have many different ways to fertalize and reproduce the first step always starts with courtship, this is when a fish will danceor change colors to impress another fish. This video shows how
fast sharks can move through
water and their aggressive