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Chapter 2: New Empires in the Americas

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John Kennedy

on 19 September 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 2: New Empires in the Americas

Chapter 2: New Empires in the Americas
II. Europeans Reach the Americas
III. Spain Builds an Empire
IV. The Race for Empires
I. Europeans Set Sail
A. Viking Sailors Reach North America
B. Prince Henry The Navigator
C. A Sea Route to Asia
1. Longship
2. skilled sailors that raided Europe & developed trading networks
3. Leif Eriksson
son of Erik the Red
1000 AD was blown off course & landed in present day Canada
explored further south
established a settlement called Vinland
1. Made great advances in exploration
built an observatory
founded a school for navigation
financed research by mapmakers & shipbuilders
paid for expeditions
2. Riches In Asia
Europeans explore for several reasons
1) spices in Asia
2) spread Christianity
3) curious about Asian culture
3. Technological Advances
astrolabe
caravel
1. Rounding Africa
Bartolomeu Diaz reaches the Cape of Good Hope in 1488
Vasco de Gama reaches Asia in 1497
2. Results of Exploration
Portugal becomes very wealthy & a world power
African kingdoms become decimated by slave trade
other European nations begin to explore
2. Impact of Columbus's Voyages
A. Columbus Sails Across the Atlantic
1. The Journey Begins
Columbus from Italy
pursuades Ferdinand & Isabella of Spain to pay for his expedition
sets sail in August of 1492 with the Nina, Pinta, & Santa Maria
reaches the Bahamas in October, names it San Salvador
interested in gold
made 3 more voyages
impact not realized until after his death
changed the way Europeans thought of the world & their place in it
created conflict as countries vied to add lands to their empires
1493 Line of Demarcation divided the Americas between Spain & Portugal
Treaty of Tordesillas moved the line
B. Other Explorers Sail to the Americas
1. Amerigo Vespucci
"new world"
German mapmaker named it America after him
2. Vasco Nunez de Balboa
crossed central America to discover the Pacific Ocean
3. Ferdinand Magellan
first to circumnavigate the globe (1519-1522)
4. Columbian Exchange
name given to the transfer of plants, animals, & diseases between Europe & the Americas
A. Spanish Conquistadors
C. Spanish Treatment of Native Americans
1) Forced Labor
a) by 1650, between 3-4 million people (80% Native American)
b) encomienda system
land granted by Spanish govt. for settlers
settlers were to produce crops
could enslave the locals
2) Role of the Catholic Church
a) wanted to convert Native Americans to Christianity
b) Bartolome de Las Casas
B. Exploring the Borderlands of New Spain
1) Conquest of the Aztec Empire (1519-1522)
2) Conquest of the Inca Empire (1531-1534)
a) Leaders
Emperor Atahualpa
Francisco Pizarro less than 400 conquistadors
b) Keys to Spanish Success
civil war between Atahualpa & his brother
technology
disease
brutality
3) Spanish Settlements
called New Spain
non Christians were not permitted
Council of the Indies
Viceroyalty of Peru
Viceroyalty of New Spain
3 types of settlements
pueblos (trading posts)
missions (convert natives to Catholicism)
presidios (military bases)
El Camino Real
or "the Royal Road"
a) Leaders
King Montezuma II
Hernando Cortes & 508 conquistadors
b) Keys to Spanish Success
alliances
Dona Marina
disease
technology
Quetzalcoatl
1) Exploring the Southeast
a) Juan Ponce de Leon
discovered gold in Florida
searched for the "Fountain of Youth"
b) Hernando de Soto
discovered the Mississippi River
2) Exploring the Southwest
a) Cabeza de Vaca
wrote a book that would later inspire others to explore the southwest
b) Vasquez de Coronado
first European to see the Grand Canyon
searched for a lost city of gold
Mini Biographies of Explorers
Amerigo Vespucci
Christopher Columbus
Vasco de Gama
Hernando de Soto
Francisco Pizarro
Hernando Cortes
Ferdinand Magellan
1) Protestant Reformation
Martin Luther
Huguenots
King Henry VIII creates the Anglican Church
angers the Pope & Catholics
2) Catholic Spain & Protestant England go to War
Queen Elizabeth (Protestant)
sea dogs
Sir Francis Drake
King Philip II (Catholic)
Spanish Armada
England Wins
England remains Protestant
Spain can be defeated
A) Events in Europe
1. England
John Cabot
never found a passage, but his voyages became the basis to England's claim to land in North America
2. France
Giovanni de Verrazano
Jacques Cartier
founded Quebec
3. Dutch
Henry Hudson
B. Search for a Northwest Passage
King Henry VIII
"Bloody Mary"
Elizabeth
Prince Edward
Daughter of Catherine
Catholic
Queen 1556-1558

daughter of Anne Boleyn
Protestant
Queen 1558-1603
son of Jane Seymour
Henry's only son
died at 15
King 1547-1553
King 1509-1547
Henry Hudson
King Henry VIII
1. England
Sir Walter Raleigh (1584)
Virginia
"Lost Colony" of Roanoke (1587)
John White led 117 people
Virginia Dare 1st European born in America
2. France
Massacre at Fort Caroline
Samuel de Champlain - Quebec
Robert La Salle settled in Louisiana
few settlers (12,000) & treated Natives w/ respect
3. Dutch
New Netherland
New Amsterdam (New York
City today)
allowed members of all
religions to settle
in their colony
C. European Presence in North America
A. The Need for a New Labor Force
1. Large sugar plantations in Hispaniola & S. America
2. 1600's English tobacco farms in North America
3. Not enough local slaves
Native Americans not immune to diseases
1500 = 2-10 million Native Americans
1800 = 500,000 Native Americans
would often run away
B. The Slave Trade
1. Four reasons Africans were picked
Immune to most diseases
No family or friends in America
Permanent source of cheap labor
Prior farm work experience
2. Middle Passage
Voyage from Africa to America
Between 15-20% died
3. African Diaspora
Spread out all over the Americas
Laws developed to regulate slave trade, treatment & behavior
C. Slave Culture in the Americas
1. Diverse African cultures, yet similar beliefs & customs
2. Family life vital
3. Religion a refuge
mostly Christian, though some African religions
songs & folktales
art & dance
V. Beginnings of Slavery in the Americas
Triangular Trade
Movie Scenes
Slave Culture
Slave Treatment
Slave capture in Amistad
Slave Auction in Roots
Slave whipping in Roots
Slave whipping in 12 Years a Slave
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