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2.1 The Nature of Matter

The Nature of Matter
by

Lori Richardson

on 8 January 2014

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Transcript of 2.1 The Nature of Matter

When atoms of the same element join together, they also form a molecule.

Oxygen molecules in the air you breathe consist of two oxygen atoms joined by covalent bonds. Covalent Bonds A chemical compound is a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions.

Scientists show the composition of compounds by a kind of shorthand known as a chemical formula. Water, which contains two atoms of hydrogen for each atom of oxygen, has the chemical formula H2O. The formula for table salt, NaCl, indicates that the elements that make up table salt—sodium and chlorine—combine in a 1:1 ratio. Chemical Compounds Some isotopes are radioactive, meaning that their nuclei are unstable and break down at a constant rate over time.

Although radiation can be dangerous, radioactive isotopes have a number of important scientific and practical uses.

Geologists can determine the ages of rocks and fossils by analyzing the isotopes found in them.

Radiation from certain isotopes can be used to detect and treat cancer and to kill bacteria that cause food to spoil.

Radioactive isotopes can also be used as labels or “tracers” to follow the movements of substances within organisms. Radioactive Isotopes The study of chemistry begins with the basic unit of matter, the atom.

The concept of the atom came first from the Greek philosopher Democritus, nearly 2500 years ago.

Democritus asked, can you divide a substance without limit, or does there come a point at which you cannot divide the substance without changing it into something else?

Democritus thought that there had to be a limit, and he called the smallest fragment the atom, from the Greek word atomos, which means “unable to be cut.” Atoms When molecules are close together, a slight attraction can develop between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules.

These intermolecular forces of attraction are called van der Waals forces, after the scientist who discovered them.

Although van der Waals forces are not as strong as ionic bonds or covalent bonds, they can hold molecules together, especially when the molecules are large. Van der Waals Forces Because of their structures, atoms of different elements do not all have the same ability to attract electrons. Some atoms have a stronger attraction for electrons than do other atoms.

When the atoms in a covalent bond share electrons, the sharing is not always equal.

Even when the sharing is equal, the rapid movement of electrons can create regions on a molecule that have a tiny positive or negative charge. Van der Waals Forces Sometimes electrons are shared by atoms instead of being transferred.

The moving electrons travel about the nuclei of both atoms, forming a covalent bond.

When the atoms share two electrons, the bond is called a single covalent bond. Sometimes the atoms share four electrons and form a double bond. In a few cases, atoms can share six electrons, forming a triple bond. Covalent Bonds These oppositely charged ions have a strong attraction for each other, forming an ionic bond. Ionic Bonds A sodium atom easily loses its one valence electron and becomes a sodium ion (Na+). Ionic Bonds An ionic bond is formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another.

An atom that loses electrons becomes positively charged. An atom that gains electrons has a negative charge. These positively and negatively charged atoms are known as ions. Ionic Bonds The atoms in compounds are held together by various types of chemical bonds.

Bond formation involves the electrons that surround each atomic nucleus. The electrons that are available to form bonds are called valence electrons.

The main types of chemical bonds are ionic bonds and covalent bonds. Chemical Bonds The physical and chemical properties of a compound are usually very different from those of the elements from which it is formed.

For example, sodium is a silver-colored metal that is soft enough to cut with a knife. It reacts explosively with cold water. Chlorine is a very reactive, poisonous, greenish gas that was used in battles during World War I.

However, the compound sodium chloride--table salt--is a white solid that dissolves easily in water, is not poisonous, and is essential for the survival of most living things. Chemical Compounds The weighted average of the masses of an element’s isotopes, in which the abundance of each isotope in nature is considered, is called its atomic mass.

Because they have the same number of electrons, all isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties. Isotopes Atoms of an element may have different numbers of neutrons. For example, although all atoms of carbon have six protons, some have six neutrons, some seven, and a few have eight.

Atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain are known as isotopes. Isotopes The electron is a negatively charged particle (–) with only 1/1840 the mass of a proton.

Electrons are in constant motion in the space surrounding the nucleus. They are attracted to the positively charged nucleus but remain outside the nucleus because of the energy of their motion. Electrons What are you made of?

Just as buildings are made from bricks, steel, glass, and wood, living things are made from chemical compounds.

When you breathe, eat, or drink, your body uses the substances in air, food, and water to carry out chemical reactions that keep you alive.

The first job of a biologist is to understand the chemistry of life. THINK ABOUT IT 2.1 The Nature of Matter Chapter 2: the Chemistry of Life The structure that results when atoms are joined together by covalent bonds is called a molecule, the smallest unit of most compounds.

This diagram of a water molecule shows that each hydrogen atom is joined to water’s lone oxygen atom by a single covalent bond. Each hydrogen atom shares two electrons with the oxygen atom. Covalent Bonds A chlorine atom easily gains an electron (from sodium) and becomes a chloride ion (Cl-). Ionic Bonds Ionic bonds form between sodium and chlorine to form NaCl, table salt. Ionic Bonds What are the main types of chemical bonds?

The main types of chemical bonds are ionic bonds and covalent bonds. Chemical Bonds What are the main types of chemical bonds? Chemical Bonds In what ways do compounds differ from their component elements? Chemical Compounds The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called its mass number. Isotopes are identified by their mass numbers; for example, carbon-12, carbon-13, and carbon-14. Isotopes The number of protons in the nucleus of an element is called its atomic number. Carbon’s atomic number is 6, meaning that each atom of carbon has six protons and, consequently, six electrons. Elements and Isotopes A chemical element is a pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom.

More than 100 elements are known, but only about two dozen are commonly found in living organisms.

Elements are represented by one- or two-letter symbols. For example, C stands for carbon, H for hydrogen, Na for sodium, and Hg for mercury (shown). Elements and Isotopes How are all of the isotopes of an element similar?

Because they have the same number of electrons, all isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties. Elements and Isotopes How are all of the isotopes of an element similar? Elements and Isotopes Because atoms have equal numbers of electrons and protons, their positive and negative charges balance out, and atoms themselves are electrically neutral. The carbon atom shown has 6 protons and 6 electrons. Electrons Protons and neutrons have about the same mass.

Protons are positively charged particles (+) and neutrons carry no charge at all.

Strong forces bind protons and neutrons together to form the nucleus, at the center of the atom. Protons and Neutrons Atoms are incredibly small. Placed side by side, 100 million atoms would make a row only about 1 centimeter long—about the width of your little finger!

Despite its extremely small size, an atom contains subatomic particles that are even smaller.

The subatomic particles that make up atoms are protons, neutrons, and electrons.

The subatomic particles in a carbon atom are shown. Atoms What three subatomic particles make up atoms? Atoms In what ways do compounds differ from their component elements?

The physical and chemical properties of a compound are usually very different from those of the elements from which it is formed. Chemical Compounds What three subatomic particles make up atoms?

The subatomic particles that make up atoms are protons, neutrons, and electrons. Atoms CHONPS
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