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The Protestant Reformation
Transcript of The Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation was a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
The main individuals who challenged papal authority:
- Henry VIII
The English Reformation
Started with the reign of Henry VIII who wanted to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon, after she failed to produce a male heir.
He would then marry Ann Boleyn.
However, the Roman Catholic church did not support divorce.
The pope would excommunicate him if he announced his divorce.
He tried to make a special appeal to the pope so he might get a special "
It meant that the pope would agree to the divorce because Henry was the King of England & it wouldn't affect the way the Catholic Church banned divorce for others.
The pope still refused and by 1533 he ordered the Archbishop of Canterbury to grant him the divorce.
Henry then places himself as Supreme Head of the Church by an
Act of Parliament
Barely any opposition; the vast bulk of the population was angry with the Catholic church because the felt they were being used as a source of money.
Response of the Catholic Church to the reformer's demands.
Leaders of Catholic Church were both surprised and frightened.
Princes of Germany supported Luther and resisted the Catholic Church. This led to the Catholic movement.
1545: Leaders of Catholic Church gather at Trent, Italy.
Chelsey Mora and Sabrina Barot
Born in Eisleben, Germany in 1483.
Interested in monastic life but his father wanted him to be a lawyer.
July 1505: Luther got caught in a violent thunderstorm where a lightning bolt nearly struck him down.
"A sign from God."
Turned his back on law and entered an Augustinian monastery.
1512: Received his doctorate and became a professor of biblical studies.
Luther Questions the Catholic Church
In the early 16th century Europe, some theologians and scholars were beginning to question the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.
Translations of original texts such as the Bible and the writings of Augustine became available due to printing press.
influenced Luther's belief which would later form the basis of Protestantism.
This led to the
: Commited the idea that salvation could be reached through faith and by divine grace only. Luther also objected to the corrupt practice of selling indulgences.
"Disputation on the Power & Efficacy of Indulgences."
On October 31, 1517 Luther defiantly nailed a copy of his 95 Theses to the door of the Wittenberg Castle Church.
The 95 Theses in Depth
Was written a humble academic tone; It was questioning rather than accusing.
Luther's central idea:
God intended believers to seek repentence & that
alone (not deeds) would lead to salvation.
The Bible is the central source of religious authority.
July 1520: Pope Leo X issued a
(a public decree) that condemned Luther's propositions as heretical & gave him 120 days to recant.
Luther refused & on January 3, 1521 he was excommunicated.
April 17, 152l: Luther appeared before the
Diet of Worms
in Germany and refused to recant.
May 25th: Holy Roman emperor Charles V signed an edict declaring that his writing be burned.
Born in Picardy, France in
Originally studied theology at the University of Paris but his father wanted him to study civil law.
However, his father died in 1531 and he decided to continue his studies in theology.
Calvin also studied Greek at College de France in Paris in 1531.
Luther's Later Years
1533: Calvin experiences a sudden and unexpected conversion to Protestantism, brought on by God.
1536: Published the
Institutes of the Christian Religion
1536: Went to Geneva to further spread Protestantism and Calvinism
He lectured, preached, and wrote commentaries and treatises on Calvinism until his death on May 27, 1564
Geneva was now called the "second Rome" because of Calvin
By 1521 the reform movement that was initiated in Wittenberg had grown beyond his influence.
No longer a theological cause; It became political as other leaders stepped up to lead the reform.
Near the end of his life his views became more radical as he pronounced the pope the Antichrist.
He advocated for the expulsions of Jews (anti-Semetic) from Germany and OK'd polygamy based on the practice of the patriarchs in the Old Testament.
So basically his writings were responsible for fractionalizing the Catholic Church and sparking the Protestant Reformation.
English Calvinists in the late 16th and 17th centuries
worked towards religious, moral and societal reforms
migrated to America to escape religious persecution
Henry wanted to shut down the monasteries
Monks were fat, lazy and corrupt
Monasteries had wealth and land
The Crown would gather the wealth acquired from the monasteries
Mary I - Converted England to Catholicism, persecuted Protestants, "Bloody Mary"
Elizabeth I - Made England Protestant again, tolerated other religions, "Elizabethan Age"
Council of Trent
Convened by Pope Paul III in 1545, lasted for 18 years.
Aim: to restore the superiority of the Roman Catholic Church.
Decrees were issued covering every aspect of Church authority
chastity of priests, monastic reform, Pope as a superior leader
The Jesuits/Society of Jesus
Founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534
Aggressively supported the Catholic doctrine
Licensed "for the care of souls in life and for teaching and preaching the faith."
Sent by the Catholic Church to "win back lost souls"
The theological system of John Calvin that develops Luther's doctrine of justification by faith alone and emphasizes the grace of God and predestination.
"God subdued my soul to docility by a sudden conversion"