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Reproductive System-Advanced Biology

Information on the Reproductive System
by

Brittany Rumphol

on 3 January 2017

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Transcript of Reproductive System-Advanced Biology

The Reproductive System
Body Issues
Male Reproductive System
Female Reproductive System
Reproduction & Fetal Development
Primary sex organs (gonads)
Found within a
scrotum
, fleshy pouch

During development, testes form inside the body
originate adjacent to the kidneys
descent of the testes
The Testes
CONDITION
one or both of the testes do not descend by the time of birth
lodged in the abdominal cavity
Occurs in 3% of full-term deliveries
Occurs in 30% premature

CORRECTIVE MEASURE
can correct itself up to 3 weeks after birth
surgery
Cryptochidism
Paired structures extending between the abdominopelvic cavity and the testes

contains the blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels that supply the testes
The Spermatic cords
2 internal chambers called
scrotal cavities
Partitioned by a
raphe
Cremaster Muscle
: responsible for pulling the scrotum closer to the body Why is this necessary?
The Scrotum and Testes

response to changes in temperature: spermatozoa development requires a specific temperature to mature properly
Why does the cremaster muscle need to pull the scrotum towards the body?
Site of spermatogenesis (process of producing sperm)
process that is repeated from puberty until death
Testes
1. Mitosis (pre-puberty)
Stem cells give rise to
spermatogonia
(undifferentiated cells with 23 pairs of chromosomes)
2. Meiosis (during puberty)
Spermatogonia
go through this process to half the # of chromosomes (haploid) so that when joined with an egg, the correct number of chromosomes appear in the zygote
called a
spermatid
3. Spermiogenesis
spermatids mature (final external structural changes)

final product:
Spermatozoa
or Sperm
Process of Spermatogenesis
3 distinct regions
Head:
packed with chromosomes,
acrosomal cap
(requirement for fertilization--enzymes)

Mid-piece: neck, mitochondria

Tail: single flagellum, makes the cell motile
Anatomy of Spermatozoan
Epididymis
Connection from testes to the ductus deferens
Twisted tubule approx. 23 ft
Functions 1) monitors/adjusts fluid in this area 2) breaks down damaged spermatozoa 3) stores/protects/transports spermatozoa (not motile until ejaculation)
Peristaltic movements

Ductus Deferens
Connection between the epididymis to the urethra
Muscular tube16-18 inches long
Stores sperm (several months)
Ejaculatory duct connects it to the urethra and regulates release

Urethra
pathway for urine and reproductive systems
Male Reproductive Tract

most common cancer among men ages 15-35
95% of cancers results from abnormal spermatogonia/spermatocytes
Survival rate increased from 10% in 1970 to 95% in 1999. (due to early diagnosis/improved treatment)
Self Examinations
Testicular Cancer
Fluid released during ejaculation is composed of
5% concentrated spermatozoa
95% fluids from other glands (needed to provide nutrients and mobility for sperm)

Other glands include
Seminal Vesicles
Prostate Glands
Bulbourethral Glands
Accessory Glands
Contribute 60% of semen volume
high concentration of fructose (spermatozoa metabolism)
Prostaglandins (stimulates smooth muscle contractions in reproductive tracts)
Fibrinogen (forms clots after ejaculation)
Seminal Vesicles
Surrounds portion of the proximal urethra
20-30% of semen
seminalplasmin (antibiotic)
pH neutralizer from metabolic waste of sperm metabolism from movement
The Prostate Gland
secretes a thick, alkaline mucus
neutralizes acids
lubrication
The Bulbourethral Glands
Average release of 2-5 mL of semen or ejaculate which contains
Spermatozoa ( 20-1000 million sperm)
Seminal Fluid (glandular secretions)
Enzymes

Semen Analysis
-used to assess male fertility
test for:
Volume (2-5 mL)
Sperm Count (more than 48 million)
Motility (min. of 12% should be active)
Semen
inflammation of the prostate gland
commonly affects older men
results from bacterial infections
Causes: pain in pelvic cavity, painful urination, mucous discharge
cured by antibiotics
Prostatitis
Function:
-pass urine
-transports semen for fertilization

Structure:
Root:
fixed portion that attaches the penis to the body wall

Body:
(shaft) tubular, movable portion

Glans:
expanded distal end, surrounds the external urethral meatus

Prepuce
or foreskin surrounds the penis and is often removed due to infection
25% of males worldwide

Internal Structure:
Corpus cavernosa:
2 circular bands of tissue found in the inside of the penis and diverge at the base
Corpus spongiosum
: layer of tissue that surrounds the urethra
Both enclosed by a cartilaginous sheath containing dorsal blood vessels.
The Penis
Pituitary gland releases
follicle-stimulating hormone
or
FSH
which
promotes spermatogenesis


Pituitary gland releases the
luteinizing hormone
or
LH
which
causes secretion of testosterone = affects the CNS to influence behaviors (libido), metabolism, muscle growth, secondary hair growth


Testosterone:
stimulate enlargement of the testes, increased growth of body hair, enlargement of larynx and vocal folds, strengthening of bones and muscular growth
Male Hormones
2nd leading cause of cancer/death in Males

Screening by blood tests looking for presence of
prostate-specific antigens
or
PSA's
. Increased #'s indicate cancer.

Rectal Exam

Prostatectomy or removal of prostate reduces the risk
Prostate Cancer
primary sex organs (gonads)
paired, almond-shaped organs
lateral walls of pelvic cavity

Function:
1) Produce immature female gametes
2) secrete female sex hormones

Held in place by
ovarian ligament
- connects surface of ovary to uterus
suspensory ligament
: connects ovary to pelvic wall
-
ovarian artery/vein
& connect to ovarian
hilum

Size: 5 cm (l) 2.5 cm (w)
Site of Oogenesis
The Ovaries
ovum production
begins before birth, accelerates at puberty and ends at menopause
between puberty and
menopause,
oogenesis occurs monthly = ovarian cycle

Process
1.
Oogonia
complete mitosis prior to birth (approx. 2 million)
2.
Primary oocytes
undergo meiosis and then halt
3. Rising levels of hormones trigger ovarian cycle
primary oocytes stimulated for further development
not all survive to puberty---from 2 million --> 400,000 viable remain
Oogenesis
1. Primary Oocyte
46 Chromosomes
2. First Meiotic Division
2 cells each with 23 pairs of chromosomes
a)
Secondary Oocyte
b)
First Polar Body
3. Secondary Oocyte --> future egg
First Polar Body --> unequal distribution; degenerate
Ovarian Cycle

Fallopian tubes
hollow muscular tube, 10 cm (l)

3 segments
1)
Infundibulum:
end closest to ovary, expanded funnel, numerous finger-like projections called
fimbriae
2)
Ampulla:
thickest, middle segment of uterine tube
3)
Isthmus:
short segment that connects to the uterine wall

Peristaltic movements
takes 3-4 days to transport from ovary to uterine cavity
Fertilization typically occurs in the ampulla or isthmus
The Uterine Tubes
woman in the US have a 1 in 70 chance

3rd most common cancer among women, most dangerous because it is seldom diagnosed early
Ovarian Cancer
PID -- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
major cause of sterility
infection of uterine tubes caused by STD's
fever, abdominal pain
Highest risk in ages 15-24
Treatment: antibiotics
Scar tissue preventing passage of zygote
Provides mechanical protection, nutrition, support for developing embryo (1-8 weeks), fetus (9 weeks-delivery)

Internal
Body
: largest region, multiple layers
thick, muscular layer: myometrium
Cervix
: inferior portion that extends from the body to the vagina

Thick, uterine wall is made of 3 layers
1) Endometrium: inner, mucous layer
2) Myometrium: thick, middle, muscular layer
3) Perimetrium: outer layer
The Uterus
most common reproductive cancer in women
15-34 ages affected
33% of US individuals die of this condition

HPV-Human Papilloma Virus
more than 70 types
not all wart/symptomatic
Cervical Cancer
Menstrual cycle
3 Phases:
1)
Menses:
decreased blood flow to this region (due to hormones) causes it to deteriorate, rupture, and shed
aka menstruation
1-7 days
35-50 mL of blood is lost
2)
The Proliferative
: re-growth, vascularization occurs

3)
The Secretory
: glands in the lining enlarge, accelerate rates of secretion
about 12 days
The Uterine Cycle
Menarche:
First cycle
average age 11-12
Menopause: last cycle
average age 45-55

Amenorrhea:
no menarche by age 16 or cycle interrupted for 6 months or more
caused by developmental abnormalities, endocrine/genetic disorders, malnutrition, severe emotional stress
Menarche & Menopause
elastic, muscular tube
between the cervix and the vestibule
average length 7.5-9 cm
lies parallel to the rectum

3 functions:
1) passageway for elimination of menstrual fluids
2) receives the penis during intercourse and holds spermatozoa prior to fertilization
3) forms inferior portion of birth canal for delivery of fetus
The Vagina
Hymen
: elastic epithelial fold that partially blocks entrance prior to sexual intercourse

Vestibule:
central space where vaginal and urethral openings are found
Clitoris: tissue projection, female equivalent to penis (derived from same embryonic structures), erectile tissue that contains a network of blood vessels

Labia Minora, majora:
folds of skin that are saturated with glands

Clitoris:
small projection between labia minora; corresponds with male penis (both erectile tissue)
Anatomy of Vagina
The Mammary Glands
cancer of the mammary glands
leading cause of death in women between ages 35-45
Approx. 12% of US women will develop breast caner at some point


Risk Factors:
1) Caucasian
2) family history
3) early menarche or late menopause

Prevention:
early detection via self-exams
Mammograms
Mastectomy
Breast Cancer
Regulated by hormone secretions from the pituitary and gonads, coordinates with ovarian and uterine cycles
=must be at the right time otherwise infertility results

Estrogens
are the primary hormone that regulates these cycles
Main functions
stimulates bone/muscle growth

CNS (libido)
Initiating repair/growth of endometrium
Female Hormones
7-10 days before menses

fluid retention, breast enlargement, headaches, pelvic pain, and bloating

PMS

Changes in sex hormone levels alter internal body chemistry
Premenstrual Syndrome
After the zygote forms & implantation on the uterine wall occurs: vascularized uterine wall covers the cell (
placenta
)

Gestation period
is separated into 3 trimesters (each 3 months)
1st Trimester: major organ systems appear
2nd Trimester: development of organs, appears "human"
3rd Trimester: rapid growth, organ systems functional, premature delivery could be successful at this point
Fetal Development
3 stages
1)
Dilation
cervix dilates, approx. 8 hours
2)
Expulsion
complete dilation, 10 cm
episiotomy: incision through perineal musculature to avoid excessive bleeding when torn
if complications, this time for Cesarean section
3)
Placental
placenta is ejected (afterbirth)
Labor and Delivery
Dizygotic
(fraternal) twins: 2 separate eggs ovulated and both fertilized
70% of twins

Monozygotic
(identical): result in splitting of initial zygote
genetically identical

Multiple Births
Erection, Orgasm, and Ejaculation
During sexual stimulation,
***In a flaccid state, the blood vessels are constricted preventing blood flow.***

1. blood vessels dilate = causes penis to stiffen and elongate (
erection
)
2. culmination of sexual stimulation (physiological/psychological)=
orgasm
3. movement of sperm from testes + glandular secretions =
emission
4. semen forcing to the outside of the urethra =
ejaculation
5. Oxytocin is released from the Pituitary Gland
a) stimulates contractions of 3 glands
b) constriction of vessels = reducing blood flow

***Spontaneous emission & ejaculation = common in sleeping adolescent males; due to hormonal changes/sexual development
Erection, Lubrication, and Orgasm
1. Upon stimulation, hormones are released causing;
erectile tissue to swell
elongation of vagina
secretion of mucus into the vestibule (lubrication)

2. Orgasm
tissues of vagina engorge and swell with blood
muscles of the walls contract rhythmically (transport)
Pap
Pap
or
Papanicolaou-test

Named after the scientist

Take a smear of cells from the cervix to identify cellular changes

Government Health guidelines: advise annual after becoming sexually active or by 21 years old
Mammary glands
: specialized organs controlled by hormones of the reproductive system
produce milk--process known as lactation
connect to the outside projection or nipple where milk leaves the breast
-Surrounded by a darkened region called the
areola:
sebaceous glands found here

Mammary glands connect to the
lactiferous duct
which exits the nipple
TSE or Testicular Self-Examinations
Important to do each month
allows you to understand what shape/size is normal for your body
How to do a TSE?
Right after a hot bath/shower
Apply slight pressure to single testis
roll around between fingers
Should feel epididymis
lump/tube that is normal
Feel for lumps/bumps/swelling or size change between each TSE
BSE or Breast Self-Examination
Check 1 week after menstrual cycle begins--less swollen
Exam while all clothes are removed and laying flat in supine position
use 3 middle fingers
move in small coin-sized circles
use varying levels of pressure
feel from collarbone to bra line along with sternum to armpit
Protection Against Pregnancy
Birth Control Implant
match stick sized rod implanted into arm (integument)
lasts up to 3 years
releases
progestin:
(synthetic form of progesterone that regulates ovulation)
less than 1 out of 100

Birth Control Patch
small patch that sticks to skin
releases both
progestin
and
estrogen
less than 1 out of 100

Birth Control Pills
oral pill contraceptive form
releases both
progestin
and
estrogen
less than 1 out of 100

Birth Control Shot
injection in the arm once every three months
injections of
progestin
less than 1 out of 100

Birth Control Sponge
sponge that is temporarily inserted
contains spermicide
approx 9 out of 100

Birth Control Vaginal Ring
small ring inserted for 3 weeks
contains both hormones
less than 1 out of 100

IUD
intrauterine device
inserted into the uterus
can remain there for up to 12 years

Emergency Contraceptive
prevent pregnancy up to 5 days after unprotected sex
prevents ovulation - NOT abortion


maintaining female secondary sex characteristics (hair distribution, adipose tissue deposits)
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