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B1 week 2.1

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Sara Kaikkonen

on 29 August 2015

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Transcript of B1 week 2.1

B1 week 2.1
Healthy diet
Infectious diseases Drugs

Metabolism and metabolic rate
Differences in metabolic rate
Food groups and uses in the body
Barriers to infections
Disease spreading and Dr Semmelweis
Antibiotic resistance
Killing pathogens
Keywords list
- all the chemical reactions in cells
Metabolic rate - how quickly chemical reactions happen in cells
Pathogen - Organism that can cause infectious disease
Virus - Very small microorganism that can only reproduce using a host cell
Antibodies - Special proteins that bind to a particular antigen on a pathogen
Antibiotic - chemical that can kill fungi or bacteria (not viruses)
Immunisation - Uses dead or inactive pathogens to make people immune to a disease
Placebo - dummy pill or treatment
Chemical reactions in cells (e.g. respiration) are needed to keep you alive
All the chemical reactions are called "Metabolism"
The rate that these reactions occur at is the metabolic rate - and people have different metabolic rates
Measuring your oxygen consumption (use) tells us about your metabolic rate - why? Because oxygen is used in respiration.
Age (young > old)
Gender (males > females)
Activity levels (high >low)
Weight (Overweight>slimmer)
Muscle to fat ratio (muscle >fat)
Underactive thyroid gland causes lower metabolic rates
With your shoulder partner, discuss why each of these points would affect metabolic rate.
Carbohydrate - energy
fats - energy
Protein - growth and repair
mineral ions and vitamins - keep the body functioning healthily
You also need water and fibre
For each food group, write down an example food source.
Not all bacteria are pathogens
Bacteria reproduce rapidly in our bodies if they enter it
How can bacteria enter our bodies?
Some produce toxins that make us ill
Pathogens are harmful microorganisms that cause infectious disease
All viruses are pathogens
Viruses insert themselves into host cells and use it to make copies of themselves
They then burst out of the cell and go on to infect other cells
This destroys the cells
Viruses are much smaller than bacteria and are not really alive
Viruses do not produce toxins like bacteria as they do not have structures for making proteins
Give one, get one! How does our body prevent pathogens from entering it?
When you have a "jab" or vaccination, you are being immunised
This makes you immune to the disease without you HAVING the disease
1. Small amount of dead or inactive pathogen is injected into the body
2. White blood cells recognise antigens (proteins) on the surface of the pathogen
3. White blood cells then make and release antibodies
4. If the body later gets infected with live pathogens, the white blood cells are quicker to make these antibodies
5. Antibodies destroy pathogens before they make you ill
White blood cells destroy pathogens, and there are two main types: Phagocytes and Lymphocytes

1. Phagocytes ingest and destroy pathogens
2. Lymphocytes produce antibodies that attach to antigens on the surface of the pathogen
3. Lymphocytes also produce antitoxins which counteract toxins released by pathogens
Remember - they are "pathogens" (not "germs")!
Links to videos
Doctor in the mid-1850's
Many women died from childbed fever after giving birth
Nobody knew why
Semmelweis noticed that doctors were dissecting dead bodies, then going straight in to deliver a baby without washing hands
He insisted doctors washed hands before delivering babies and fewer mothers died
Many doctors thought that the fever was "God's punishment", so Semmelweis' ideas were not accepted for many years
(Discovery education video clip- antibiotic resistance warning issued - 2.37)
Natural selection (more about this in week 3) leads to antibiotic resistance.

1. Bacteria infect you
2. Antibiotics kill many of the bacteria
3. Some bacteria survive (if you do not take the whole course of antibiotics)
4. These more resistant bacteria multiply and pass on the resistance to offspring
5. Antibiotics are then less effective against these resistant bacteria
Rally Robin with your shoulder partner - Names of drugs that you know
Drug - A chemical that alters the way your body or brain works
Addiction is when the body is dependent on a drug and will not function properly without it. Addiction is caused by drugs changing chemical processes in your body.
e.g. painkillers, antibiotics or statins
Tested rigorously before being licensed
Thalidomide apology (discovery education video clip)
Can be legal or illegal
All have side effects - some severe
Gateway drugs such as cannabis can progress the user onto hard drugs (heroin and cocaine)
Can be very addictive
Can cause withdrawal symptoms
Drug trials
Drugs are first tested in labs on human tissue and animals
After this, they are tested on humans in clinical trials
Doses start low and are slowly increased to find out which works best
Volunteers are divided into two groups - control and experimental
Control group are given a placebo - dummy pill
Neither the doctor nor patients know who is getting the placebo - this is a double blind trial (fair test)
Two groups are compared to see if there is any real difference between them
Drugs are monitored even after licensing in case any new side effects occur.
Full transcript