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Transcript of just beginning
the Paleolithic Era
the Neolithic Era
"a social, economic, and political entity distinguished by the ability to express itself through images and written language" (Sayre, 0)
the set of common values that govern that system
the study of the human mind and its moral and ethical dimensions
What is the first thing that comes to mind when you hear the term "art"?
"psychic energy made imminent"
- Curator Michael Auping of contemporary artist Susan Rothenburg's work
"the compulsion to express the inexpressible, to visualize the mind as well as the world"
- Sayre, 27
techne - refers to a person's craft or vocation and the virtues of intellect and action associated with doing it well
"The aim of [poetry] is to represent not the outward appearance of things, but their inward significance" (Poetics).
In this definition, art is not simply imitation of the natural world, but elevation.
characteristics of this period
the period of Homo sapiens' ascendency beginning 100,000-120,000 years ago
'art' and more sophisticated tools appear on the scene
cooked with fire and wore clothing
possibly matrilineal + matrilocal
'Old Stone Age'
Wall painting with horses, Chauvet Cave, Ardèche gorge, France
ca. 30,000 BCE
what is the *significance* of this wall painting? specifically, how does it challenge assumptions about human creativity, ability, and time?
"Art...does not necessarily evolve in a linear progression from awkward beginnings to more sophisticated representations" (Sayre, 5)
Woman (Venus of Willendorf), Austria
ca. 25,000-20,000 BCE
connections to fertility and childbearing?
colored with red ochre = suggestive of menses?
material - raw stone - connection to origins of life?
dolls, guardians, images of beauty?
does prevalence denote matrilineal/matrilocal society?
Sculpture-in-the-round (three dimensional occupying 360degrees of space)
as distinct from relief sculpture
'New Stone Age'
characteristics of this period:
Onset ca. 10,000-4000 BCE
Significant climate change: the ice covering the Northern Hemisphere recedes; waters and temperatures rise
Agri-culture or cultures of the fields develop beginning in the Fertile Crescent and gradually developing across Europe, Asia and the Americas
"distinct centers of people involved in a common pursuit" -
What is known about these communities based on archeological discoveries?
Skara Brae, Scotland
ca. 7400 BCE
Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, Engalnd, ca. 2750-1500 BCE
connection to nearby village
burial ground "stone marking the eternity of the ancestral dead" (archeologist Mike Parker Pearson)
connected to the movement of the sun
The Heel Stone (summer solstice)
The Slaughter Stone (What is this, and how does it challenge assumptions about Stone Henge?)
a true story
embodies cultural beliefs
attempts to explain the unexplainable
mode of understanding and explanation apart from scientific explanations
belief that forces of nature are inhabited by living spirits
investing plants, animals + natural phenomena with human attributes
How does McDermott transform perspectives about the form and significance of the Venus of Willendorf?
Create an image that contends with either traditional perspectives, McDermott's, or both.
the context of culture
"encompasses the values and behaviors shared by a group of people, developed over time, and passed down" (Sayre, 4)
laws. customs. ritual. artistic production. language.
How does Auping's analysis of the Rothenburg's work at the end of chapter 1 in Sayre shift assumptions about human creativity and time?
defintions (C.1 and C.2)
The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle defines "art" in two distinct ways:
How one or more of these definitions challenge your initial thoughts about what "art" is?
According to these definitions, who is involved in "art"?
*Be sure to know the definitions of techniques and how they apply to specific works.