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Computed Tomography

Computed Tomography Imaging Modalities
by

Rebekah Benton

on 13 February 2013

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Transcript of Computed Tomography

X-ray computed tomography, aka computed tomography (CT scan) or computed axial tomography (CAT scan) is a medical imaging procedure that utilizes computer-processed X-rays to produce tomographic images or 'slices' of specific areas of the body. These cross-sectional images are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in various medical disciplines. Digital geometry processing is used to generate a three-dimensional image of the inside of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation. Computed Tomography Rebekah Benton CT Scanner CT Slice According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), job opportunities for CT scan technologists were expected to increase 17% during the 2008-2018 decade (www.bls.gov). With my own research, I have found CT job availabilities through indeed.com and as of 2/11/2013:
10+ jobs in Missouri
11+ jobs in Kansas
45+ jobs in Florida
33+ jobs in New York
40+ jobs in California
There are more jobs available in bigger Cities/States. If you are willing to relocate or not there are sufficient job opportunities. Faster-than-average employment growth (expected 28% job growth between 2010 and 2020)
Decent wage potential ($55,000 as of May 2011)
Average hourly wage of $23 hourly.
New York average of $70,000 annually
Florida average $78,000 annually
California average $75,000 annually Responsibilities of Computerized Tomography Technologist

A CT technologist must be able to perform computed tomographic procedures in an efficient and competent manner.

This requires a thorough knowledge of anatomy and the ability to make judgments about the formation of the image in regards to anatomical identification.

Knowledge of contrast media, equipment operation, sterile technique and emergency procedures is required.

Patient care responsibilities will include venipuncture, care of IV’s, chest tubes, oxygen and catheters when applicable.

The CT technologist will assist the patient, communicate the procedure, operate the equipment and analyze the images for quality. How to become a CT Technologist?
In order to become a certified CT technologist you must first complete a program of study in radiography, radiation therapy or nuclear medicine and obtain certification in your area of study. The performance of CT studies can be learned through on-the-job training or within a structured educational program. There are established CT programs that will prepare you to be a competent CT technologist and successfully pas the ARRT certification in CT.

Washburn: Each credit hour cost around $290
(21 required hours) plus the additional cost of textbooks. A typical plain film x-ray involves radiation dose of 0.01 to 0.15 mGy, while a typical CT can involve 10–20 mGy for specific organs, and can go up to 80 mGy for certain specialized CT scans. Lungs
CT can be used for detecting both acute and chronic changes in the lung parenchyma, that is, the internals of the lungs. It is particularly relevant here because normal two-dimensional X-rays do not show such defects. A variety of techniques are used, depending on the suspected abnormality. For evaluation of chronic interstitial processes (emphysema, fibrosis, and so forth), thin sections with high spatial frequency reconstructions are used; often scans are performed both in inspiration and expiration. This special technique is called high resolution CT. Therefore, it produces a sampling of the lung and not continuous images. Head
CT scanning of the head is typically used to detect infarction, tumours, calcifications, haemorrhage and bone trauma. Of the above, hypodense (dark) structures can indicate infarction and edema, hyperdense (bright) structures indicate calcifications and haemorrhage and bone trauma can be seen as disjunction in bone windows. Tumors can be detected by the swelling and anatomical distortion they cause, or by surrounding edema. Ambulances equipped with small bore multi-sliced CT scanners respond to cases involving stroke or head trauma. Pulmonary angiogram
Example of a CTPA, demonstrating a saddle embolus (dark horizontal line) occluding the pulmonary arteries (bright white triangle)
CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) is a medical diagnostic test used to diagnose pulmonary embolism (PE). It employs computed tomography and an iodine based contrast agent to obtain an image of the pulmonary arteries. Bone reconstructed in 3D Computed tomography of human brain, from base of the skull to top. Taken with intravenous contrast medium. Example of a CTPA, demonstrating a saddle embolus (dark horizontal line) occluding the pulmonary arteries (bright white triangle) Cardio
With the advent of subsecond rotation combined with multi-slice CT (up to 320-slices), high resolution and high speed can be obtained at the same time, allowing excellent imaging of the coronary arteries (cardiac CT angiography). Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) Abdominal Pelvic
CT is a sensitive method for diagnosis of abdominal diseases. It is used frequently to determine stage of cancer and to follow progress. It is also a useful test to investigate acute abdominal pain. Extremities
CT is often used to image complex fractures, especially ones around joints, because of its ability to reconstruct the area of interest in multiple planes. Fractures, ligamentous injuries and dislocations can easily be recognised with a 0.2 mm resolution CT services are utilized 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, therefore there are different types of shifts available for full-time, part-time or as needed hours. (PRN) Technologists are usually hired for a specific shift and expected to rotate "on-call" hours. CT technologists with advanced degrees and/or experience also have opportunities in education, management and sales. Advantages:
CT completely eliminates the superimposition of images of structures outside the area of interest.

Because of the inherent high-contrast resolution of CT, differences between tissues that differ in physical density by less than 1% can be distinguished.

Data from a single CT imaging procedure consisting of either multiple contiguous or one helical scan can be viewed as images in the axial, coronal, or sagittal planes, depending on the diagnostic task. This is referred to as multiplanar reformatted imaging.

More accurate diagnosis from the ability to study anatomy more in depth than 2D xray. Disadvantages
Compared to other diagnostic tests, CT scans deliver a relatively high dose of radiation to the patient. While this is not usually a problem for a single scan, patients who need to undergo repeated tests can be subjected to a significant level of radiation, increasing their cancer risk.

Patients who undergo a CT scan often receive a dose of what's known as a "contrast material," containing iodine. Some people can have an allergic reaction to this, and this is the most common side effect CT scan patients complain of. Symptoms can include a metallic taste in the mouth, itchiness, hives and shortness of breath. Contrast materials without iodine are available and are becoming more widely used.

Because a CT scan is so detailed, it can sometimes alert doctors to minor abnormalities in the body that don't have symptoms related to them and that in the normal course of life would not have caused the patient any problems. However, doctors may feel the obligation to divulge this information to patients, which can cause anxiety and possibly unnecessary follow-up tests or treatments.
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