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Transcript of Animal Farm
George Orwell Biography of Eric Arthur Blair
- born on 25th January 1903 in Motihari in India
- 1904 moved to England
- 1917 - 1921 Eton College
- 1922 -1927 served as an officer in Burma for the "Indian
Imperial Police" resigned his office
- dishwasher teacher live by the profession of the author
- because of self-doubt about his quality pseudonym George Orwell
-1936 soldier for the Republican power in the Spanish Civil War
- In 1937 he leave Spain because of the secret police and an injury
-1943 - 1945 literary editor at a weekly newspaper
- 1943-44 he wrote the fable and political satire "Animal Farm"
- 1946 To get away of the bustle, he moved to the island of Jura
- George Orwell died on 21th January 1950 Farmer Jones
- Is an alcoholic
- manages farm badly
left them starve The old Major
-old, wise boar, respected by all animals.
- his dream is that the animals fight for a better future
the revolution of the animals will come
a mixture of Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924)
gave the Russian people the intellectual and ideological tool for the revolution.
Marx believes that humanity is headed without any alternative to the global communism,
preparation and laying out of Lenin's body in Lenin's Mausoleum
Like- after Old Major's death, his skull is kept and the animals visited weekly. Snowball
- white boar is wise
- leads together with Napoleon the rebellion
- took over the management of the farm:
teaches them reading and writing
develop plans for improvement of energy security.
- expulsion of Snowball by Napoleon's dogs
Leon Trotsky (1979-1940),
wanted to realize Lenin's ideas
was eliminated Napoleon
- operates first in the background
- brings Dogs Puppies up as his secret police
- takes snowballs plans to build the windmill
- tried to take over the management of the farm
- led his opponents eliminated
- is concerned primarily just around himself
- very intelligent
the dictator Josef Stalin. Squealer
- small, fat pig
- great speech talent -> speaker of Napoleon
- justifies all his decisions
- twisted in his speeches the reality
- manipulates the memory of the animals
Vyacheslav Molotov and the entire propaganda apparatus of the Soviet Union (newspaper Pravda) Sheep and cows
- majority on the farm
- fighting bravely for common cause
- stays out of everything and repeat thoughtless that what the leader drum into them
"uneducated common people"
-> abused by the propaganda Chickens
- dare a revolution against the pigs
-> should give up their eggs for sale
-> nipped in the bud
farmers and agricultural workers
had personal property and agricultural
resisted against their dispossession
rebelled against exploitation and oppression
pay for it with their lives. Dogs
- puppies of Jessie
- first victims of the Revolution
- Napoleon dressed them as his bodyguards
- prevent revolts of the other animals.
stand for the state police (GPU)
People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD)
Russian secret service KGB
-> created a climate of fear in the population
- constant threat calling the people to absolute obedience under threat of imprisonment and forced labor. Moses
- black raven
- watching the activities on the animal farm
- does not intervene in the action
- does not take party
- made a pact with the farmer Jones
- he consoled so that the animals in times of need in the hereafter.
Russian Orthodox Church
first made common cause with the Csar
was excluded from any participation
consoled later the exploited people with referring to the morality of a better afterlife. Benjamin (donkey)
- loyal friend of Boxer
- more critical and cynical attitude
towards the events on the farm
- realizes earlier than the
others the dangers of the pigs
- only slowly matures in him willingness to resistance against the hated pigs.
the author of the fable, George Orwell
strongly sympathizes with the working population
not one of the creators of the revolution
-> a kind of "prophet" who recognizes the bad sides of the revolution very early. Boxer
- willing, the strongest but not a very intelligent horse
- does on the farm more than any other
- through his good nature, good faith and blind obedience to the leadership he works until death.
ordinary worker of the underclass
because of his lack of education and naivety, boundless exploitable
works hard and asks no unpleasant questions
embodies the ideal "working class hero" -> exploited for propaganda purposes
a campaign to increase the working morale The windmill
- with its construction the energy and supply problems can be solved
the strenuous attempt to industrialize the country at all costs
-> led to a famine because the purchase of machinery had to be financed only by selling all stocks of grain - farmer Jones owns farm in England -> "the manor farm"
- Jones is an alcoholic
- he treats his animals badly
- he forgets to feed them
- animals have respect for him and fear
- animals congregate together in the barn
- Old Major tells the animals by his vision or Dream:
that live equal together under self-government
- Old Major died
- pigs sat together -> work out a plan -> make the dream of the boar true
- expelled farmer Jones
- animals were freed
- victims -> dog Jessie lost her life -> leaving her puppies -> boar Napoleon took Summary - animals introduce the "animalism"
allowed them according to specific rules to live peacefully in a community together and to feed themselves by their collective work.
- worked perfectly
- all shared the yields fair
- held on to the seven established rules: 1. Whatever goes on two legs is an enemy.
2. Whatever goes on four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
3. No animal shall wear clothes.
4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.
5. No animal shall drink alcohol.
6. No animal shall kill any other animal.
7. All animals are equal. Snowball (and Napoleon) -> leadership on the farm :
all have got enough to eat
the Sunday -> a public holiday
all animals taught to read and write
- pigs suddenly get more food -> reason -> thinking work
- pigs sleep in the house of farmer Jones
- Snowball doesn’t join in this movement -> work at plans of a windmill
- the humans tried to win the farm back, but they failed again - Napoleon chased snowball from the farm with his fight dogs
- pigs have now a free reign among the animals
- Napoleons took over Snowballs plans
- the other animals had to work hard and got only little to eat
- someone turned against Napoleon -> attacked by the fighting dogs
- Napoleon ordered to change some rules in his favor
-> squealer justified all the actions by glossed over everything
- animals have a harder life than before
- Napoleon deals with the people
- pigs also walking upright
"four legs are good, two legs are better" ALL ANIMALS ARE EQUAL, BUT SOME ANIMALS ARE MORE EQUAL THEN OTHERS Video Octoberrevolution -25.10/7.11
-started in Petrograd
-Bolshevik revolutionaries(RSDAP) against the regime
-followed on the February Revolution
-after their was an parliament (Duma) with a Provisional Government
under Alexander Kerensky and a worker- and soldierboard
-Insurgence begun in the night of 25.10 in Petrograd
-the government capulated in the next night
-26.10: Bolshevik won in Petersburg with the majority
-Boshevik(Lenin/Trotzki) has the new command
- no real solution of the social/political problems
-1919: new organisation structure of the party: Stalin gets more power
-1924-29: Stalins position in the party and his unscrupulous attitude
helps him to get more and more power after the dead of Lenin
- assertion of different compulsions Stalin wants
--> "socialism in one country" / "Big Cleaning"
-1939: non-aggression pact with Germany
==> Stalin as the commander of the UdSSR Orwells position: Utopia/Dystopia? - Book and Reality starts with the utopia of
a better life with freedom but it ends in an
--> everything gets worster then befor
(dominance of Stalin/Napoleon) - he can look back critical
- see the problems of the UdSSR
--> directly after it happens (1945)