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Copy of Engineering
Transcript of Copy of Engineering
Engineering is a professional career, imparted by most of the universities in Chile, and the field of work is Science. To study Engineering, you must do the P.S.U. test, and obtain 730 points approx. to enter in a traditional university.
Maths Test: 50%
Science Test: 20%
Language Test: 10%
Highschool Grades: 10%
Engineers are qualified to develop, construct, operate and supervise industrial equipments. The Engineer has to be a creative and inquisitive person; he always has to go beyond.
An Engineer wins from $1.000.ooo to $1.500.000 (chilean pesos) after one year of finishing the university, but it depends on which type of engineering did you choose.
What We Learn?
Syd Hossein Hassanzadeh
M.Sc Student of Bioelectric Engineering
Importance of appraisal
Fundamentals and Design
Precautions and Consideration
Calibration and Electrical Saftey
Normal Atmospheric Gasses:
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Water Vapor (H2O)
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Water vapor=> 0.5%
Supports combustion Present in the atmosphere as a diatomic gas (O2)
Necessary for animal life
Review of Oxygen Transport Physiology
To ensure adequate oxygenation, several physiologic mechanisms must occur :
The blood must have adequate amounts of oxygen.
There must be adequate amounts of oxygen carriers, or hemoglobin molecules.
There must be adequate cardiac output to carry the oxygen to the tissues.
The cells must be able to adequately use the oxygen that is delivered.
In Blood, oxygen carried in two forms:
A small amount of oxygen is dissolved in the arterial plasma,(About 1% to 2%)
much of the oxygen moves from the plasma and is carried bound to
molecules (About 98%)
Transports oxygen to peripheral tissues.
Removes a limited amount of carbon dioxide from the peripheral tissues
The binding of oxygen changes the conformation (shape) of the hemoglobin molecule.
Deoxyhemoglobin is converted to oxyhemoglobin.
Percentage of hemoglobin saturated with oxygen must be in range
(Non invasive oxygen saturation)
indicates the oxygen dissolved in the plasma (oxygen bound to the hemoglobin molecules)
Arterial Partial Pressure, oxygen dissolved in the plasma (only about 3% of total content) or PO2
Total amount of oxygen in the blood or the SaO2 + PaO2
Arterial Blood Gas Sampling
Respiratory Gas Measurement
Gold standard for respiratory gas monitoring
Arterial Blood Gasses
Non-invasive measurement of oxygen saturation
One of The
Fifth vital sign
(in addition to temperature, blood pressure, pulse, and respiratory rate)
Necessity & Significance
Chronic respiratory diseases such as COPD and asthma are among the most common health conditions (affecting more than 1 billion patients worldwide)
Patients in respiratory distress
All critically ill patients
Patients requiring O2 concentrations of 40% or greater
Stable patients at risk from sudden deterioration (ie overdose)
Monitoring during procedures such as suctioning
congenital heart defects account for 24% of infant deaths due to birth defects. In the United States, about 4,800 (or 11.6 per 10,000) babies born every year have CCHDs. Babies with a CCHD are at significant risk for death or disability if their CCHD is not diagnosed and treated soon after birth.
Pulse Oximeter Advantages
Significande and Importance of Measuring Blood Gas
There was no statistically significant difference between the Pulse Oximeter devices and the gold standard of ABG.
But every environments presents unique medical treatment challenges
High Altitude Field Environment
These results indicate that at the altitude of 2100 m (6900 feet) above sea level, all studied pulse oximetry devices perform within the standard deviation reported by the manufacturer (2%-4%). No statistically significant difference exists among the majority of the devices(Elliot M. Ross et al 2013)
physicians had to assess, diagnosis, and evaluate many medical conditions based on their experience and clinical judgment
manifest only at the later stages
of the disease, especially with problems concerning respiration
It cost the earth
In 1964, a San Francisco surgeon developed a self-calibrating, 8- wavelength oximeter (marketed by Hewlett Packard in the 1970's).
This system was used in clinical environments but was very large. (weighing approximately 35 lbs)
The unit was also very expensive (approximately $10,000.00)
Takuo Aoyagi, a Japanese bioengineer was trying to develop a noninvasive method to determine cardiac output using cardiogreen dye.
Fortunately, he was also interested in oximetry. He recognized that he might be able to use the pulsating changes in the light transmission through the ear to measure arterial oxygen saturation.
another Japanese researcher with Minolta was working on the same concept and applied for a patent a month later
This patent was denied in Japan but approved in the U.S.
The Biox Corporation in Colorado made significant advances in pulse oximetry, (first introduced the use of LED's for sources).
They marketed their device directly to respiratory therapists and anesthesiologists who could see the benefit of continuous, real time, noninvasive oxygen saturation readings.
Ohmeda Corporation purchased Biox, in the 1980's, along with Nellcor and Novametrix, continued to make significant advances in size reduction, cost, and development of multiple site probes.
Come of age
Today there are many manufacturers of pulse oximeters (All offer a variety of different oximeter boxes
The way the signals are processed after that point, play a major role on how accurate the readings will be, especially through motion and low perfusion.
During the late 1990's and into the next decade, 'new generation' pulse oximeters have been introduced that have elevated the accuracy of pulse oximeter readings significantly.
Behind The Closed Doors
German researchers reported use of an "ear oxygen meter" that used red and infrared light to compensate for changes in tissue thickness, blood content, light intensities and other variables. However, it was not until World War II that interest in oximetry took hold. At that time there was a need to evaluate oxygenation of high altitude pilots.
Light at the end of the tunnel
Between 1940 and 1942, a British researcher, Millikan, used two wavelengths of light to produce a practical, lightweight aviation ear oxygen meter for which he coined the word "oximeter".
He noted that light transmitted through a red filter was oxygen-saturation-sensitive and light passing through a green filter was independent of oxygen saturation.
The system went through many modifications during the 1940's and 1950's and was eventually manufactured by the Waters Company. This system was mainly used in physiology, aviation, and experimental studies
Sound as a pound
“The determination of arterial oxygen saturation by analysis of bi-spectral pulsatile waveforms”
Physical Properties Used In Pulse Oximeter
Pulse oximetry uses light to work out oxygen saturation. Light is emitted from light sources which goes across the pulse oximeter probe and reaches the light detector
if a finger is placed in between the light source
and the light detector Part of the light will be absorbed by the finger
The amount of light absorbed depends on the following:
concentration of the light absorbing substance.
length of the light path in the absorbing substance
oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin absorbs red and infrared light differently
Relationship between light absorbency and solution concentration
Hemoglobin (Hb) absorbs light so it's axiomatic that The amount of light absorbed is proportional to the concentration of Hb in the blood vessel
Beer's Law: Amount of light absorbed is proportional to the concentration of the light absorbing substance
Amount of light absorbed is proportional to the length of the light path
oxyhemoglobin absorbs more infrared light than red light & deoxyhemoglobin absorbs more red light than infrared light
Physical property No.3
did Remember what wavelength Was ?!
All light is composed of waves, The distance between the "tips" of the waves is equal to the wavelength