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Assessing Language Attitudes through a Matched-guises Experi

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manayer hm

on 4 July 2015

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Transcript of Assessing Language Attitudes through a Matched-guises Experi

Assessing Language Attitudes through a Matched-guises Experiment: The Case of Consonantal Deletion in Venezuelan Spanish
Two experiments were designed for testing language attitudes,

one toward intervocalic /d/ deletion and one toward syllable-final /[alveolar flap]/ deletion.

retention of syllable-final /[alveolar flap]/ is perceived as a prestigious variant in Venezuelan Spanish.
The present paper contributes to the study of these variables by presenting a perception experiment based on a matched -guise task with the purpose of evaluating attitudes toward intervocalic/d/ and syllable - final /r/


The study examines the evaluation of speech based on allophonic differences as opposed to a holistic speech evaluation
Methodology:

Two experiments were designed for testing language attitudes.

one: toward syllable-final /r/ deletion.

two: toward intervocalic /d/ deletion.

Fifteen subjects.

all speakers were born and raised in Caracas, Venezuela.

all speak are part of the middle class of the city.

speaker 1(
Maeia
): is a Lawyer.
speaker 2(
Gaby
): is a Medical Doctor.
speaker 3(
Juan
): is a University professor.
speaker 4(
David
): is a Business administration professional
Hypothesis

Retention


Deletion


Unlike the results for syllable final /r/ , none of the ratings are significantly different.
The sociolinguistic evaluation of syllable-final /r/ deletion evokes a more negative attitudinal rating than intervocalic /d/ deletion.




Unlike the previous evaluation
Voice equality has a big effect, it is the role






Retention


Deletion


* speakers received a better evaluation evaluation while retaining syllable final /r/

Fifteen listeners
Each listener heard two examples from each speaker
Four sentences containing retention of final /r/
Four sentences containing deletion of final /r/

Deletion

Retention

A global evaluation


vs

intervocalic
/d/
retention/deletion

Syllable-final
/r/
deletion/retention

Results of Perceptual task



In the scale of 1 6

1.2 Retention/Deletion of intervocalic /d/

retention
2.88
deletion
3.64

Retention
3.04
Deletion
3.62





retention receives better evaluation.
voice equality was not involved in the evaluation
very similar ratings

understanding of language attitudes toward consonantal deletion
Discussion

Both syllable-final / r / and retention are known as prestige variants .

The means are higher for retention.


BUT !!!



The tendencies require further testing.

To have a solid conclusion.


Conclusion

The investigation of understanding the attitudes toward consonantal deletion and retention syllable-final / r / by examining its perception. ( Hypothesis )

Strength : Tendencies in comparison to kindness and attractive .
Weaknesses : the variants of intervocalic / d / in more neutral.

Two males Two females
intervocalic /d/ deletion

syllable-final / r /
The stimuli presented to the listeners are based on recordings obtained from the four speakers.

The time was 15 minutes, which increase the chances that participants focus on the task without getting tired, thus jeopardizing the results of the study.
Each of these speakers lives in middle-class income neighborhoods.

Also the parents of all four speakers are University educated.
1.

What are the attitudes of Caracas, Venezuela, listeners to the production versus the deletion of intervocalic /d/ and syllable-final /r/ by speakers of the same city and the same socioeconomic class?


2.

Do the attitudes of the listeners confirm the conclusions of production studies that label deletion of intervocalic /d/ and syllable-final /r/ as features of lower socioeconomic classes in Caracas?


3.

Does the production versus deletion of intervocalic /d/ and syllable-final /r/ overcome voice quality differences?
the age of the participants ranged from 18 to 52
All participants had completed high school plus other training, including technical or university studies.
Only 1 of 15 participants had lived in another Spanish-speaking country. That participant reported living in Colombia for three months. Thus, the linguistic experience of the participants is similar, all having spent most of their lives in Caracas.
15
listeners
9
females
6
males
8 participants were older than 30 and 7 were younger than 30

15 listeners completed the perceptual experiment.First, they completed a background questionnaire that requested information
regarding country and city of birth, age, gender, education level, current occupation, and what type of contact they had with with other Spanish-speaking countries (i.e., visited, lived, family members, friends, etc.).

All listeners were born and raised in Caracas, Venezuela.
A Likert scale was used to allow participants to rate each attitude from a high degree to a low degree rather than only providing "yes/no" options.

"is this person intelligent?"
very intelligent
somewhat intelligent
not intelligent at all
Listeners were shown a screen, both hearing a sound file and given the following scale to make a choice from:
Choose from six options on the scale...
The person is . . .
1 . Very [target attitude]

2. Quite[target attitude]

3. [target attitude]

4. Only slightly [target attitude]

5.Not very [target attitude]

6. Not [target attitude] at all
Results of Perceptual task
Syllable-final
/r/
deletion/retention

intervocalic
/d/
retention/deletion

A global evaluation
Retention
vs
Deletion

Retention
2.88
Deletion
3.64

Retention
3.04
Deletion
3.62

retention receives better evaluation.
voice equality was not involved in the evaluation
very similar ratings
Retention
3.702
Deletion
4.048
Unlike the previous evaluation
Voice equality has a big effect, it is the role



Juan
3.47
David
4.28
Full transcript