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Transcript of Female leadership
listening. Do you have any questions? ZIP-IN Problem Statement Introduction Power, influence, and diversity in organizations Women and the labyrinth of leadership When and why women are selected as leaders in
crisis contexts Conclusion Quizz ZIP-OUT Why is there a lack of women in positions of power and authority? Introduction Mind Map Female leadership Qualities of female leadership "Women leaders are more persuasive, have a stronger need to get things done and are more willing to take risks than male leaders. Women leaders were also found to be more flexible, as well as stronger in interpersonal skills than their male counterparts, enabling them to read situations accurately and take information in from all sides. These women leaders are able to bring others around to their point of view because they genuinely understand and care about where others are coming from so that the people they are leading feel more understood, supported and valued." Dr. Musimbi Kanyoro (the World YWCA Secretary General) Margaret Thatcher (Education Minister) (current head of the government in Germany) Angela Merkel Corazon Aquino (President of the Republic of the Philippines) Women and the Labyrinth of Leadership Women and the Labyrinth of Leadership Problem Statement DEBATE Why are we more qualified for a leader position? Communal qualities Agentic qualities Double mind Transformational leaders Transactional leaders Family life Socialization Why is there a lack of women in positions of power and authority? Conclusion Remedies to gender inequality: 1.
12. Why is there a lack of women in positions of power and authority? The glass cliff: When and why women are selected as leaders in crisis contexts. "Glass cliff refers to women being more likely to rise to postions of organizational leadership in times of crisis than in times of success, and men being more likely to achieve those positions in prosperous times."
Susanne Bruckmuller & Nyla R.Branscombe. The glass cliff: When and why women are selected as leaders in crisis contexts. EXPERIMENT 1. Independence
4. Ability to build confidence in others
8. Communication skills Tools: Different leader stereotype attributes become relevant in times of crisis relative to times of success. Hypothesis 9. Ability to deal with conflicts
12. Ability to work in teams
13. Striving for power
15. Innovative thinking
16. Ability to motivate others Results: What is a glass cliff? Why does glass cliff emerge? 1. ___________: as long as a company performs well, there should be no perceived need to change.
2. _____________: Are strong in a context of male history of leadership.
For most people, the "typical manager" shares many attributes with the "typical man", that effect is called ______________ bias. The agentic characteristic for that male stereotype is ________________ or ________________.
When women are better rated for a manager position in an unsuccessful company, this is called________________. The interpersonal quality for that female stereotype is _________________ or _________________________________. CONCLUSION Why is there a lack of women in positions of power and authority? Women are more likely to become leader of a failing company than a successful one (=glass cliff) Status-quo bias Stereotypes about gender and leadership Men are associated with agentic qualities = more effective (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr MALE FEMALE Leadership position Communal qualities
Victim of Double Bind
Difficulties in informal networking
Male network can be hard to break into Men are more transactional and laissez-faire leaders = less effective CONCLUSION STATUT Power, Influence, and Diversity in Organizations INFLUENCE POWER "Power is the capacity to change behavior and influence is the practice of using power to affect behavior change."
French and Raven 1959 "Influence is the ability to get what one wants even in the absence of fear of punishment or promise of reward"
Rashotte and Webster 2005 "Power and influence are used synonymously because of the absence of verb form for the term power."
Wrong 1979 Characteristics of people with power Characteristics of people without power "Status is a position in a group based on esteem or respect."
Reger, Cohen, and Zelditch 1972 Questions: What are status characteristics?
What are the expectations from a high-status group member? Answers: Status characteristics: gender, race, education, task expertise, age social class High-status group member:
Have more opportunities to perform
Are evaluated more highly
Perform more in groups Question: What implication does status have for women and other minorities? Answer: Gender and race operate as status characteristics
Men have higher status than women
Have more influence
Are expected to perform better
Receive higher education Result:
Women are not seen as leaders
Women resist leadership positions How can women overcome status disadvantage? 1. Education
2. Self-presentation strategy
4. Institutional arrangements
5. Environments that recognizes minorities performance A. Attractive people are accorded higher status
B. Training to recognize expertise of minority group members
C. Group structure with women in leadership positions
D. Increasing educational credentials
E. Clarifying motivation and interests of the group works 5 MINUTES ! Power, Influence, and Diversity in Organizations: CONCLUSION Why is there a lack of women in positions of power and authority? POWER INFLUENCE STATUS Communal qualities
Victim of Double Bind
Difficulties in informal networking
Male network can be hard to break into Women are more likely to become leader of a failing company than a successful one (=glass cliff) 3 issues:
Status Power Influence Involves positive and negative sanctions
Usually highly contested Persuades someone to do something
People agree with the status (which leads to influence) "Power is the ability to get what one wants even in the face of resistance."
Weber 1978 "Influence is the ability to get what one wants even in the absence of fear of punishment or promise of reward"
Rashotte and Webster 2005 Influence is the ability to get what one wants even in the face of resistance FALSE Task expertise is a characteristics of status. TRUE High-powered people rely less on group norms and more on their individual motives TRUE Communal qualities are often associated with the idea of an effective leadership. FALSE Transformal leaders establish themselves as role models by gaining followers' trust and confidence. TRUE Women tend to be transactional leaders. FALSE Laissez-faire leaders give-and-take relationships that appeal to subordinates' self-interest. FALSE Glass cliff: implies that women's routes to leadership is full of obstacles, require persistence and is worth striving for. FALSE Status-quo bias and Stereotypes about gender and leadership are reasons for the emergence of glass cliff TRUE