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Social Psychology

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Patsy Sibley

on 16 July 2015

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Transcript of Social Psychology

Social Psychology
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
what?
Liking and Loving: Interpersonal Attraction

Liking or having the desire for a relationship with another person.

social psychology is the study of how a person's thoughts, feelings and behavior are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others.
Social Influence
The process through which the real or implied pressure from others can directly or indirectly influence actions and choices
Conformity
Changing one's behavior to match other's behaviors or expectations.
Compliance
responding favorably to a request offered by others
compliance studies are often used to try and understand the habits of consumers in the market place.
Obedience
Groupthink
Kind of thinking that occurs when people place more importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which the group is concerned.
ASCH'S EXPERIMENT
Foot in-the-door technique
Door-in-the-face technique
Asking for a large commitment and being refused and then asking for a smaller commitment.
Lowball technique
Getting a commitment from a person and then raising the cost of that commitment.
That's-not-all technique
A sales technique in which the persuader makes an offer and then adds something extra to make the offer look better before the target person can make a decision.
Asking for a small commitment and after, gaining compliance, asking for a bigger commitment.
4 WAYS TO INCREASE COMPLIANCE
3 MAIN AREAS
-Norm of reciprocity
Refers to performing some behavior in response to an order given by someone in a position of power or authority.
Miligram's Experiment
But wait, There's more!
"Unsinkable"
Attitudes
A tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person, object, idea, or situation.
Impression Formation
Attribution
the set of thought processes we use to assign causes to our own behavior and that of others
How people process, store, and apply information about other people and social situations.

Focuses on the role that cognitive processes play in our social interactions.

The way we think about others plays a major role in how we think, feel, and interact with the world around us.
Social Cognition
the process by which individual pieces of information about another person are integrated to form a global impression of the individual (i.e. how one person perceives another person).
Stereotype
A set of characteristics that people believe is shared by all members of a particular group.
Interaction in Groups
IN GROUPS

Social Groups with whom a person identifies - "us"

OUT GROUPS
Social groups with whom a person does not identify - "them".

Three-Components of Attitudes
Affective Component:


Behavior Component
Action that a person takes in regard to a person, object or situation.

Cognitive Component
how a person thinks about himself, an object or situation

Forming and Altering Attitudes
Direct Contact
Contact with the person, idea, situation, or object that is the focus of the attitude.


Direct Instruction
Can be by parents, another important individual, or media

Interaction with others

Attitudes are often influenced by the attitude of those around us. Attitudes can be altered by changing our social context.

Cognitive Dissonance:
When attitude and behavior clash
Sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person’s behavior or a situation does not correspond to that person’s beliefs.


How to reduce Cognitive Dissonance?
1. Change their conflicting behavior to make it match their attitude.

2. Change their current conflicting cognition to justify their behavior.

3. Form new cognitions to justify their behavior.

Attribution Theory
The theory of how people make attributions.
- Fritz Heider (1958)
- External & Internal
Situational Cause
External factors: delays, action of others, weather, traffic, and so on...
Dispositional Cause
Internal factors: Personality, Characteristics,
Fundamental Attribution Error
Tendency to overestimate the influence of internal factors in determining behavior while underestimating situational factors.
PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS
Proximity – close to you
Birds of a feather

People tend to like being around others who are similar to them in some way.

RULES
OF
ATTRACTION
when people think about
what attract them to
others.
Physical attractiveness.

Being physically near someone else.

Love is a Triangle - Triangular theory of love
- Robert Sternberg
Three components of Love
Seven kinds of love that can result from combining the three components of love: Intimacy, passion, and commitment.
Intimacy + Passion = Romantic Love
Intimacy + Commitment = Companionate Love

Opposites attract
Complementary qualities.
It is similarity, not complementarity,
that draws people together and helps them stay together.


Reciprocity of liking
People have a very strong tendency to like people.
Low Self worth.

Aggression

Behavior intended to hurt or destroy another person.

Frustration – desired goal
Pain
Loud Noises
Excessive Heat
Irritation someone else’s smoke
Awful smells

Charles Whitman
-mother
-wife
-12 people
-By law enforcement officers
-letter
- Tumor

Social Roles
The pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is in a particular social position.


Violence in media and aggression
Social learning theory – Aggressive behavior – learned (Observational learning )
Children who are exposed to high levels of violent media are more aggressive than children who are not.

Altruism
Prosocial behavior that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve the risk the harm to oneself


Bystander effect

Referring to the effect that the presence of other
people has on the decision to help or not to help, with help becoming less likely as the number of bystander decreases.


Catherine Genovese
- Caught
- stranger in parking lot
- 3:15 am
- stab
- left
- 30 mins.
- rape, stab, dead
- 38 people
Diffusion of responsibility

Occurring when the person fails to take responsibility for
actions or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the resposibility.

LaShanda Calloway
- argument
- Stab
- dead
- convinience store
- 2 min. 911
- 5 shoppers
- stepped over
- continued shopping

Altruism
Why do we compete with each other for resources sometimes and at other times cooperate in an altruistic manner, (helping others even if there is a disadvantage to ourselves?)


Cooperation and Competition
Social Groups
When a person holds an unsupported and often negative stereotyped attitude about the members of a particular social group.
This occur when prejudicial attitudes cause members of a social group to be treated differently than others in situations calling for equal treatment.

Discrimination
Prejudice
Referring to the effect that the presence of other people has on the decision to help or not to help, with help becoming less likely as the number of bystander decreases.


Bystander Effect
Diffusion of Responsibility
Occurring when the person fails to take responsibility for actions or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility.

Prisoner's Dilemma
Two members of a criminal gang are arrested and imprisoned. Each prisoner is in solitary confinement with no means of speaking to or exchanging messages with the other. The police admit they don't have enough evidence to convict the pair on the principal charge. They plan to sentence both to a year in prison on a lesser charge. Simultaneously, the police offer each prisoner a bargain.
Why Would We Help Others?
Prosocial and Helping Behavior
Why people don't help:
When do people help?
A single, identifiable victim:
People are more likely to help if they can connect specifically to the person that they are being asked to help.
Which scenario makes people more likely to donate to charity?
"Food shortages in Malawi are affecting more than three million children"
"This is Rosika. Her life can be changed by your donation."
Why is this the case?
Humans have two different processes for deciding what to do:
The first is an affective system that responds to emotion, rapidly processing images and stories and generating an intuitive feeling that leads to immediate action.
The second is a deliberative system that draws on reasoning, and operates on words, numbers, and abstractions, which is much slower to generate action.
Perceived Impact:
People who are told of only 3000 refugees are more likely to donate, and donate larger amounts.

Futility thinking: We think that if we're not making a sizable difference, it's not worth making the difference at all -- it will only be a drop in the ocean and the problem will keep raging on.
Imagine you're told that there are 3000 refugees at risk in a camp in Rwanda, and you could donate towards aid that would save 1500 of them. Would you do it?

What if it were a camp of 10,000 refugees?
When they are alone:
As we discussed earlier, people are less likely to help when they are in groups due to diffusion of responsibility.

In this experiment, students were invited to participate in a market research survey.

While taking the survey the research assistant pretend to accidentally hurt herself.

When students were alone, 70% of them stopped what they were doing and offered assistance. However, when students were in pairs, this number dropped to 7%
The Power of Social Context:
Stanford Prison Experiment
“Does the situation outside of you—the institution—come to control your behavior, or do the things inside of you—your attitude, your values, your morality—allow you to rise above a negative environment?” –Philip G. Zimbardo
Conclusions:
People will readily conform to the social roles they are expected to play, especially if those roles are strongly stereotyped

The roles that people play can shape their behavior and their attitudes.
Actor-Observer Effect
Questions:
What prevented "good guards" from objecting to or preventing the behavior of tough or bad guards?
What factors might lead prisoners to attribute guard brutality to the guards' disposition or character, rather than to the situation?
Was it ethical to do this study? How do the ethical dilemmas in this research compare with the ethical issues raised by Milgram's obedience experiments? Would it be better if these studies had never been done?
how a person feels toward the object, person or situation.

First Impressions:
Primacy effect: the first information we learn about someone influences us more than later information does.

Self-fulfilling prophecies: expectations that increase the probability of a predicted event.
Tendency to be more likely to make internal attributions for other people's behavior and to make external attributions for one's own behavior.
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