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10.3 The Roman Catholic Church

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Joshua Wake

on 25 March 2015

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Transcript of 10.3 The Roman Catholic Church

The Roman Catholic Church
The Church was the main civilizing force
There were no cities, no government, no nothing!
When Rome fell, civilized life disintegrated in Western Europe.
Everybody respected the Church - even the barbarians. (They who converted to it!)
The Church was the only institution left standing in Western Europe.
The Church unified Europe
Under feudalism, everything was splintered into local units.
Europe was full of a zillion manors; each operated like a world unto itself.
The Church was the only thing that ran throughout Europe.
Sort of like oxygen; Wherever you went, the Church was there.
The Church was the best organized institution
1. While feudalism was local, the Church was international. It crossed all political borders.
2. While feudalism was loosely organized, the Church was highly organized. It had a structure that still stands today.
The Pope
Head of the Church. Very powerful, he could challenge the power of a King.
Cardinals
The Pope chose the cardinals. When the Pope died, the Cardinals elected a new Pope.
Archbishops
Leader of one city. Like the Archbishop of Canterbury. Built cathedrals. Advisor to King.
Bishops
Controlled a rural region, including its monasteries and church lands.
Priests
Minister of one church in the village.
Friars
Travelled from village to village. Like Friar Tuck in Robin Hood.
Monks
Lived in a monastery. Copied religious books by hand - before the printing press.
The Church was local
The Pope was in Rome.
The monastery was high on a distant hill.
But the local priest lived in the village.
He was as poor as the peasants.
The Church touched every person's life
When you were born, the Church baptized you.
When you got married, the Church performed the wedding ceremony.
When you died, the Church performed the funeral service.
Receiving the sacraments in Church was necessary for your own personal salvation.
The Mass
Everybody went to church. Nearly 100%. Even in the woods, Robin Hood had Friar Tuck.
This was religion for the masses.
The church service was called just that: The Mass.
Medieval Religion
Spiritual Salvation
The Church wielded the single most important influence on the people.
When push came to shove, people listened only to the Church because it held their spiritual fate.
Death
In medieval Europe, death was near; Local wars, Crusades, Black Death . . .
The Average person lived to be only 30.
A peasant's life was horrible; he looked forward to the next world.
Eternity
The Church was very clear; The only way to get into Heaven was through the Church.
If you received the sacraments (there are 7, especially communion) you would eventually make it to Heaven.
If you crossed a King, you could end up in the dungeon for your lifetime.
If you crossed the Church, you could end up in Hell for all eternity.
Heaven, Purgatory, and Hell
To the medieval peasant, Heaven and Hell were very real.
Heaven was a place: If you were a saint, you would end up in this wonderful place.
Hell was a place: If you were evil, you would end up here. Dante described THE INFERNO in The Divine Comedy.
Purgatory was a place: Most people ended up here. After suffering for your sins, you moved on to Heaven.
Bell, Book, and Candle
You did not want to cross the Church
If you did, you were excommunicated - that is, you were dead in the eyes of the Church.
They even held a funeral service for you, complete with bell, book, and candle.
At the ceremony, the bell was rung, the book was closed, and the candle was snuffed out!
No kidding, you were bound for Hell.
Canon Law - Church Courts
Ever since the fall of Rome, the Church had its own courts to:
1. Protect the weak and punish those who prayed on them.
2. Put clergymen on trial.
3. Enforce Church
law, known as
canon law.
Heresy
In medieval times, the absolutely worst crime was heresy - disagreeing with the teachings of the Church.
A heretic was a person who opposed the teachings of the Church. He was burned at the stake.
Joan of Arc was charged with being a heretic (having visions from God) and was burned at the stake.
The Inquisition
The Church established special courts for putting heretics on trial.
The courts were known as the Inquisition.
The Inquisition was held in many European countries - but most people remember the Spanish Inquisition.
Medieval Politics
Heaven, Purgatory, and Hell
To the medieval peasant, Heaven and Hell were very real.
Heaven was a place: If you were a saint, you would end up in this wonderful place.
Hell was a place: If you were evil, you would end up here. Dante described THE INFERNO in The Divine Comedy.
Purgatory was a place: Most people ended up here. After suffering for your sins, you moved on to Heaven.
The Church was wealthy
Causes
1. The Church was the largest landholder in Europe.
Nobles gave land to the Church.
When a vassal died, the land reverted back to his lord.
Not so with the Church: When the vassal died, the land reverted back to the Church.
2. The Tithe - Each peasant gave 10% of his produce (goods) to the Church.
Results
Popes, archbishops, and bishops lived like nobles.
In medieval times, land was power.
The Pope had political power
The Pope had tremendous political power.
The people were his power base: When he spoke, they listened . . . and followed.
Popes "made" Kings
1. It was the Pope who crowned the king.
If the Pope said you were King, the people regarded you as King.
2. The coronation tradition began with Charlemagne.
It established two things: The divine right of kings. No separation between Church and State.
Popes clashed with Kings
If the Pope said you were no longer King, the people no longer regarded you as King.
In 1075, Pope Gregory VII did all three of the following things to King Henry IV, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire:
1. Excommunication
When the Pope excommunicated a King, he was shunned.
No one in the Church was allowed to be near him.
2. Interdiction
A papal interdiction meant that church services could not be held in the country.
No baptisms or funerals were hassles.
Partaking of the sacraments was essential to salvation.
So no sacraments jeopardized you for all eternity.
In the clash between King and Church, the Pope usually won.
3. Deposition
When the Pope deposed a King, people no longer regarded him as King.
They no longer obeyed him.
Medieval Architecture
Cathedrals!
Bishops built giant cathedrals.
In Paris, the Bishop of Paris built Notre Dame Cathedral. (Chartres and Reims, also in France.
Near London, St. Augustine built Canterbury Cathedral.
During the 1200s, nearly every one of the most important towns of England was erecting a cathedral.
Gothic Architecture
From the 1100s to the 1400s, it was called Gothic architecture.
It was called Gothic because the style emerged from Barbarian Europe.
You remember all those Goths that overran the Roman Empire: Visigoths, Ostrogoths, etc.
They were all Germanic barbarians.
Why so big?
Roman Catholicism became the state religion of the Roman Empire in 353 A.D.
The state religion required large churches for the masses - large numbers of worshipers.
A whole industry of church architecture flourished.
Early Christian architecture was modeled on the Roman style.
The Romanesque style had arches for doors and windows.
The Gothic style meant huge cathedrals, open to light and soaring upward, with pointed arches called flying buttresses.
A Gothic cathedral was . . .
1. Giant in size.
2. Complicated in its design.
3. Open to light.
4. Stained glass windows.
5. Soaring upward toward the sky.
The inside arches were called "flying buttresses."
Heaven knows how they came up with that name, but you have seen them:
When Princess Di married Prince Charles, the wedding as held in a Gothic cathedral.
As she walked down the aisle with that long train, you saw the arches inside of the cathedral.
They reached up to the sky, no.
Stained-glass Windows
The stained-glass window is considered one of the greatest medieval art forms.
The windows illustrate the lives of Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the saints.
It was one more way to provide instruction to people who could not read.
The windows were very tall.
This is because the flying buttresses took some of the roof weight off of the outside walls.
Medieval Art
For centuries, almost all artwork was based on religion.
The Church hired artists to decorate churches and cathedrals.
The purpose of art was to glorify God.
A. RELIGIOUS ART
Gothic Art
1. Topics: Jesus, the Virgin Mary, and the Saints.
2. Compared to Islamic art: Very different. Islamic art forbids religious images.
3. Very complicated, very colorful.
4. Flat and one-dimensional.
5. People don't look real: They have no weight to their bodies and no human emotions in their eyes.
6. The main purpose of art: To teach and support religion.
Gothic Statues
Gothic cathedrals were full of statues: Jesus, the Virgin Mary, and the Saints.
Stained Glass Windows
During the Middle Ages, some craftsmen became artists.
Stained glass, for example, developed into an art form.
The topics were Jesus, the Virgin Mary, the Saints, and stories from the Bible.
Also Charlemagne, the "Champion of the Church."
The illustrations were elaborate, complicated, and colorful - lots of reds and golds.
Gothic Painting
Jesus, the Virgin Mary, and the Saints
This was similiar to Byzantine art (icons) in Constantinople.
Illuminated Manuscripts
Monks illustrated manuscripts.
Like stained-glass windows, the illustrations were elaborate, complicated, and colorful - lots of reds and golds.
They often showed scenes of daily life!
B. SECULAR ART
Tapestry
Tapestries - rugs on the wall - for decoration and insulation.
These were gorgeous textile art.
They were about secular topics.
Scenes from legends.
Giotto
In the 1300s, one artist was experimenting with three-dimensional art . . .
In Florence, Italy (birthplace of the Renaissance), Giotto became the founder of Western Painting
Using perspective and shadows, he created paintings that looked realistic.
People's facial expressions and body language reveal feelings and emotions.
With Giotto, we are headed toward the Renaissance, the greatest flowering of art in World History.
Medieval Music
For centuries, almost all music was played in church.
The purpose of music was to glorify God.
A
A. RELIGIOUS MUSIC
The Gregorian Chant
Around 600 A.D. under Pope Gregory, this plain song became popular in churches.
During the church service, the choir sang Psalms from the Old Testament.
They sang one melody, unaccompanied by music.
B. SECULAR MUSIC
Minstrels
Songs that tell a story, like the Song of Roland.
Troubadours
These composer-musicians sang love ballads.
Courtly love: A knight falls in love with a lady.
In the 12th century, a troubadour played at the court of Eleanor of Aquitaine.
The Pastourelle
A love ballad
Caroles
The carole was:
1. A dance song from the Provence region of France.
2. It was played during Spring festivals - when people danced around the May pole.
3. Troubadours spread the dance song throughout Europe.
4. Caroles were sung and danced at fairs.
5. The Church ruled that dancing should be limited to Christmas, Easter, and Saints' Day.
Instrumentals
Many musical instruments were used during the Middle Ages:
Bagpipes, lute, rebec, flute, psaltery, fiddle, organ, and dulcimer.
Minstrels and troubadours usually played the lute.
Medieval Drama
For centuries, most play were based on religion.
They held in and around the Church.
The purpose of drama was to glorify God.
Mystery Plays
In the 900s, the Church began holding short plays during church services.
1. After all, folks could not read the Bible and could not understand church services in Latin.
2. The Church used plays and art (stained-glass windows) to tell Bible stories.
In the 1200s, mystery plays became popular and spread throughout Europe. They were:
1. Run by the Church.
2. Held in cathedrals.
3. Told in Latin.
4. Presented a few stories from the Bible.
The Christmas story (the birth of Jesus, the Three Wise Men).
The Resurrection story (held at Easter).
5. They combined folk custom, folk drama, folk fectivals, and Catholic teachings.
In the 1300s, plays became lively! They were:
1. Not run by the Church - The Guilds (trade unions) financed and produced the plays.
2. Held outdoors in the summer.
3. Told in the vernacular (local language).
4. Told the whole Christian story - from the creation to the Final judgement.
5. Taught Christian principles.
Miracle Plays
1. Run by the Church - then by professional acting companies.
2. Held on a simple stage outside the church - then on traveling wagons.
3. First in Latin - then in the vernacular (local language).
4. Told about the lives of Saints (and the Virgin Mary).
5. Taught simple moral lessons.
Morality Plays
In the late Middle Ages (1300-1500), English plays became serious! (During and after the Great Plague.)
1. Run by Towns and Guilds.
2. A one-act play on a stage.
3. In the vernacular (English).
4. An Allegory. The characters were personalities of abstract ideas, conditions, virtues, or vices (Fellowship, Good Deeds, Death).
5. Taught about the struggle between good and evil in the human soul.
The most popular drama was entitled Everyman.
In that story, religion helps the main character fight temptation.
Medieval Literature
The Church had no impact on literature. And yet it did!
Books were not written in Latin
Latin was the language of the Church, but people could not speak or understand it.
People spoke the vernacular - local language - English, German, French, Spanish, Italian.
So books (which were sung before they were read) were written in popular languages.
Books were written in popular languages
1. The Romance Languages
French, Spanish, and Italian - originally came from Latin.
Many linguists believe that the Romance languages are the result of Germanic tribes trying to speak Latin.
2. The Germanic Languages
English, German, Dutch, the Scandinavian languages (Danish, Swedish, Norwegian) all came from German.
3. Which books were written in the vernacular?
In 900, Beowulf was written in the local language.....Old English (Anglo-Saxon)
In 1100, The Song of Roland was written in the local language.....French
In 1300, The Divine Comedy was written by Dante in.....Italian
In 1400, The Canterbury Tales was written by Chaucer in.....Middle English
4. Two classics shaped the national language
The language used by Dante in The Divine Comedy became the official language of Italy.
The language used by Chaucer in The Canterbury Tales became the official language of England.
Books were written about subjects other than religion
1. Knights and Chivalry
When feudalism was big, the main theme was knights and chivalry.
Since knights were "defenders of the Church," religion entered in bigtime.
Take a look at the earliest books in medieval Europe:
A. In 900, Beowulf is about a warrior and his heroism.
B. In 1100, The Song of Roland is about Charlemagne, his knights, chivalry, and wars.
C. In 1200, El Cid is about the Reconquista - the wars by Christians to throw Muslims out of Spain.
2. The Middle Class & Life in Town
While feudalism was on the decline and towns were on the rise, people wrote about life in town.
Townsmen were a rowdy bunch: They liked comedy, scandal, and cynical stories about corruption.
Middle-class authors were critical of everybody - especially corrupt government officials and corrupt clergymen.
Take a look at books written during the late Middle Ages:
1. In 1300, The Divine Comedy (by Dante) tells a story of which groups in Italy are going to heaven and hell. He talks a lot about corrupt government officials and corrupt clergymen in the Church, including the Pope.
2. In 1400, The Canterbury Tales (by Chaucer) tells the story of 30 pilgrims on their way to Canterbury Cathedral near London, England.
Medieval Universities
The university was one of the great inventions of the Middle Ages.
Europe's universities were founded by the Church.
At first, its sole purpose was theology - the study of religion.
The first purpose of education - to study religion
In the 1100s, the first universities were founded by the Church.
1. Bishops founded cathedrals.
2. Each cathedral had a school to study theology - religion.
3. Cathedral schools became universities.
By 1300, Europe had fourteen universities.
Oxford University
1. Located northwest of London, this is the oldest university in England.
2. It was founded in the 1100s.
3. It was founded because English students could no longer attend the University of Paris (Sorbonne).
4. Its sole purpose was to serve as a college of theology - for the study of religion.
5. Its first students were Catholic priests.
The Sorbonne
1. This is the University of Paris.
2. It grew out of the schools that surrounded the Cathedral of Notre Dame.
3. It was founded by a theologian - one who studies religion.
4. Its sole purpose was to serve as a college of theology - for the study of religion.
5. Its first students were Catholic priests.
Courses
The Liberal Arts
Languages (Greek and Latin), Logic, and Philosophy
Philosophy: The relation of man to his Creator, to his fellowman, and to the universe around him.
The Professions
After being grounded in the liberal arts, some men went on to graduate school in specific professions:
Theology to become priests, medicine to become doctors, law to become lawyers.
The Professors
There were no professors!
Students read books and Masters (who held a Master's degree) explained the books.
Exams were oral, not written.
Women
Universities did not admit women!
There was no point: Women were not allowed to be priests, lawyers or doctors.
In fact, women could not go attend Oxford until the 19th century.
Women were not awarded degrees until the 20th century! (Oxford in 1920.)
Universities were in the town...
but independent of the town!
Independent of the town
The rise of towns stimulated the rise of universities.
Towns were independent of the local noble . . . so universities were independent of the town.
The town had its own laws and ruled itself . . . The university had its owns rules and governed itself.
The town got a charter to govern itself . . . The university got a charter to govern itself.
Modeled on the guild
The medieval university was modeled on the guild - with its system of masters and apprentices.
There were master teachers.
The students were apprentices - they learned from the master teachers.
After 4 years, students took an oral exam and received their Bachelor's degree.
After 4 more years, they received their Master's degree.
After further study, a person could receive a Doctor's degree.
Who ran the university?
In many medieval universities, students ran the university!
At the University of Bologna (Italy), they:
1. controlled the administration
2. made the rules
3. chose the courses
4. hired the teachers
5. ran the university government
The University of Paris, however, was run by a chancellor.
People who lived in the town wore regular clothes.
University students wore long black gowns (like high school students wear on graduation day).
The gowns were for warmth - classrooms were cold!
Town & Gown
How would you describe the relationship between town and gown?
Hint: Friendly or hostile?
Dominican monks were University professors
The Church established two centers of learning:
1. Monasteries - For centuries, the ONLY scholars were monks in the monasteries.
2. Universities - In the 1100s, the Church founded the world's first universities.
Preserved learning
Monks copied books in monasteries
They translated manuscrpits into Latin, the language of the Church.
Illuminated books
Monks illustrated the books. The illustrations are elaborate, complicated and coloful - lots of reds and golds.
The most popular Greek philosopher
Aristotle, who used reason and logic, was the most popular Greek philosopher among medieval scholars.
His clear thinking was a refreshing breeze at a time when medieval Europe was mired in barbarian superstitions.
Latin
1. Latin was the language of the Church
For hundreds of years, all books were written in Latin.
But the sermon was given in the vernacular, so folks could understand it.
2. Regular folks spoke the vernacular - local languages.
You know, English, German, French, Spanish, and Italian.
The Romance langauges - French, Spanish, and Italian - orginally came from Latin.
German influenced English, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish.
Many linguists believe that the Romance languages are the result of Germanic tribes trying to speak Latin!
Church services were conducted in Latin. (This continued until the 1960s!)
The Monastic Orders
Before the 1100s, monks lived in monasteries: They renounced society and did not live IN it.
After the 1100s (the rise of towns), some moastic orders lived IN society.
They lived among people and worked directly with the people.
The Franciscans
The founder was St. Francis of Assisi, who lived in Italy around 1200.
They preached the Gospel in the towns and in the surrounding countryside.
Although born the son of a rich merchant in Italy, he rejected that life and his inheritance.
He spent his life preaching the Gospel, help the poor and healing the sick.
The Franciscans are a mendicant order - they beg for money.
The Dominicans
The founder was St. Dominic, who lived in Spain around 1200.
Dominican monks became philosophers and theologians.
Many became professors or theology at the University of Paris (Sorbonne) and Oxford University.
Thomas Aquinas was a Dominican monk.
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