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The Silk Road
Transcript of The Silk Road
Barron’s AP World History Guide
http://www.advantour.com/silkroad/goods.htm Works Cited The Ending and Rebirth Negative Side of The Silk Road Routes-Overland Routes- Water Major Locations Continued Stuff Traded Cultural Exchanges- The Seleucid Kings who succeeded to the eastern parts of Alexander the Great focused their energy on Mesopotamia and Syria, allowing an Iranian nomadic leader to establish an independent kingdom in northeastern Iran. They took over Iran and then Mesopotamia and became a major force by 247 BCE. Few written sources were left due to wars against the Seleucids and later, the Romans. Their place of origin on the threshold of Central Asia and the lifestyle they had in common with nomadic pastorial groups farther to the east were key to their encouragement of trade along, the soon to be called, Silk Road. Parthians Xiang- known as the "City of Eternal Peace"the political, economic, and cultural center of China
a place where Chinese and Western cultures metInfluences- Silk, Printing, WheelbarrowDunhuang- was considered the western-most limit of direct Chinese control and military authorityInfluences- Gunpowder, Magnetic CompassKashgar- hub that connects China with Kyrgyzstan and Pakistan via two high altitude mountain passes
Marco Polo described the then Mongol-ruled Kashgar people thus: “The people are for the most part idolaters, but there are also some Nestorian Christians and Saracens... the inhabitants live by trade and industry. They have fine orchards and vineyards and flourishing estates.”
Influences- Stirrups, Paper The Silk Road was originally opened up by Zhang Qian during the Han Dynasty; it originated from the historical capital of Chang'an (now Xi’an). This trade route ran through Gansu Province via Tianshui, Lanzhou, Wuwei, Zhangye, Jiuquan, Jiayuguan (an important military garrison and barrier of the Great Wall) and Dunhuang along the Hexi Corridor. It was also a key point of the route, where the trade road divided into three main routes: the southern, central and northern routes.
The Southern Route went west along the northern foot of the Kunlun Mountains, passing Ruoqiang (Charkhlik), Qiemo (Cherchen), Hetian, Yecheng (Karghalik), Shache (Yarkand) and reaching Kashgar (the last point of the Silk Road in China). This route then crossed the snow-covered Pamirs, reached Pakistan and India via Kashmir. It could also reach Europe through Islamabad, Kabul, Mashhad, Baghdad and Damascus.
The Central Route ran west along the southern foot of Tianshan Mountains, passing Loulan (now Ruoqiang), Turpan , Korla, Kuche (Kuqa), Aksu and Kashgar, it then went over the freezing Pamirs, wound to Mashhad via the Fergana Basin, Samarkand, Bukhara and finally joined the Southern Route.
The Northern Route went west along the northern foot of Tianshan Mountains, taking merchants westwards to Hami (Kumul), Urumqi and Yining, and then reaching the areas near the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. Samarkand- one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world founded in 700 BCE by the Persians
was already the capital of the Sogdian satrapy under the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia when Alexander the Great conquered it in 329 BCE.
Influences- Bactrian Camel, Horse, Wine
India- Siddhartha Gautama Buddha introduced his idea of Buddhism which spread across the Silk Road to China and became more predominant in China than in India.
Influences- Buddhism, architecturere
Rayy- more than 5,000 years old
has many historical monuments
damaged by Mongol invasion
Antioch- founded around 300 BCE by the king of Syriais at the crossing of north/south and east/west trading routes The Silk Road on the Sea (also known as the Maritime Silk Road) was divided into East and West. Quanzhou is the starting place of Maritime Silk Road.
The East China Sea Route is about 3,000 years old. During the Zhou Dynasty Ji Zi, a court official, was sent on a journey east; he set off from Shangdong Peninsula's Bohai Gulf and navigated his way across the Yellow Sea. This led to the introduction of silkworm farming (sericiculture), filature and silk spinning into Korea. When Emperor Qin Shi Huang united China, many Chinese fled to Korea and took with them silkworms and breeding technology which sped up the development of silk spinning in Korea which were introduced into Japan during the Han Dynasty. Many Japanese envoys and monks were also able to travel to Chang'an (now Xi'an) along this sea route.
The South China Sea Route extended across the Indian Ocean and then on to various countries situated around the Persian Gulf. Exported goods consisted mainly of silk, china and tea, while imported merchandise included a variety of spices, flowers and grasses – hence it was commonly referred to as the sea's 'China Road' and the sea's 'Flavor Road' . The route was first used in the Qin and Han Dynasties, and increased in popularity from the Three Kingdoms Period (220-280) to the Sui Dynasty (581–618). This route was viewed as a secondary alternative to the Silk Road until the Tang Dynasty Anshi Rebellions (755–762). In the second half of the eighth century, trade along the Maritime Silk Road boomed as those in the overland counterpart declined. The Naval Expedition to the West by Zheng He in the early part of the Ming Dynasty demonstrated the great importance of the Silk Road and was to represent the peak of its popularity. The governments of the Ming and Qing Dynasties issued a ban on maritime trade because of the massive decline in its use. When Opium War broke out in 1840, the Silk Road on the Sea totally disappeared. The Silk Road did not only promote commodity exchange but also cultural. Buddhism was spread by Buddhist monks that traveled with merchant caravans from India to Central Asia and China and preached the new religion. Christianity entered from the Near East to Central Asia and further to China. The first Christians to arrive came along with the Nestorians' activities. The second Christians were connected with the activity of Catholic missions during the 13th century. Warriors from the Arabian caliphate brought the Islamic doctrine in the 17th century. Silk, rice, cotton, and woolen fabrics were imported to Eastern Europe
Grapes & grape seeds were sent to China
Different wool goods were sent to China
Carpets, blankets, curtains, & rugs came to China
Gold & silver, precious & semi-precious stones, glass items, and military equipment was traded (these were know as luxury goods -like silk)
skins, wool, cotton fabrics, gold embroidery, exotic fruits (watermelons, melons and peaches), sheep and hunting dogs, leopards and lions
Chinese china: porcelain, snow-white vases, bowls, glasses, and dishes with graceful patterns
Bronze ornaments and other products from this metal, ornate bronze mirrors, umbrellas, products from the well-known Chinese varnish, medicines, and perfumery were also popular
Chinese paper was popular in Europe
Merchants also carried tea and rice, woolen and flax fabrics, corals, amber and asbestos; merchants' sacks were filled with ivory, rhino horns, turtle shells, spices, ceramic and iron items, glaze and cinnamon, ginger, bronze weapons and mirrors
India was famous for its fabrics, spices and semi-precious stones, dyes, and ivory; and Iran was famous for its silver products
Eastern Europe exported considerable volumes of skins, furs, fur animals, bark for skin processing, cattle and slaves to Khoresm
Northern Europe was the source of furs, skins, honey and slaves. The Black Death was spread through the silk road.
The silk road also resulted in murder, thievery, piracy.
Europe lost a lot of coins (or hard currency) through trade. Many factor contributed to the decline of the silk road. The first decline of the silk road was caused by the decline of the Tang dynasty in China. For a while, trade along the silk road was minimal. Then after the mongols built up their massive land empire, they started creating huge amounts of trade along the silk road. Then in the late 15th century the fall of the Mongol Empire and the rise of sea trade put the final nail in the coffin for the silk road. over land trade, like the silk road, was quickly being replaced by over sea trade which was faster, cheaper, and could transport larger amounts off goods.