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TOK Memory Presentation

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Emily Little

on 14 January 2014

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Transcript of TOK Memory Presentation

Memory as a Way of Knowing

Eyewitness Testimony
Eyewitness testimony is a legal term. It refers to an account given by people of an event they have witnessed.

Eyewitness testimony is an important area of research in cognitive psychology and human memory.

Jury's tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of information. However, research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors.
Anxiety and Stress
Reconstructive Memory
Weapon Focus
Does Memory Work Like a Video Camera?
TOK Memory Presentation
1. Amnesia makes one unable to remember one’s identity.
2. Unexpected objects generally grab attention.
3. Memory can be enhanced through hypnosis.
5. A confident eyewitness should be sufficient to convict a defended on criminal charges.
4. Memory works like a video camera.
by Ellen Wingårdh, Hedda Wingårdh, Wafaa Koleilat, Ebba Oldenborg, Roza Panah and Emily Little
How Do We Know Through Memory?
All Five Statements are False
Memory is the mental capacity, to encode, store and retrieve information.
A survey was conducted in the United States in 2009, where participants were told a series of five different statements and then they were asked to state whether each statement is true of false.
Through memories we carry knowledge we have gained from our skills, our past, our experiences and the shared knowledge we have developed informally and formally through our lives. Through our memories, we grow our personal sense of identity and our sense of our place within the shared knowledge and shared life of our communities.
Memory, Sense Perception, and Emotion:

- Researchers have tracked the memories of Americans of the terrorist attacks of 9/11
- They surveyed 3000 Americans
- Participants were roughly 60% right about the details after one year time
- After three years roughly 50% correct

What is memory?
How is memory affected by a traumatic event?
Are emotional events more likely to be remembered and more accurately?
What do we edit out of our memories and normal process of forgetting?
- Vivo is an organization of health professionals that work with rehabilitating child soldiers
- Nightmares, flashbacks, depression incapacitating attempts to keep bad memories and high suicide rates
- Dr. Schauer-Kaiser “The past will not stay in the past it’s affects live on in the present through emotionally traumatic memory”
"Memory is knowledge from the past, it is not necessarily knowledge about the past."
Have you ever experienced something traumatic that still affects you?
Collective Memory and History
It is important to remember that humans are always shaped by influences and different perspectives. If we as human are changed by this, then surely our memories will also change over time. One’s personal memory might change and how will this change history?.

People from the same event have similar memories and experiences, whilst sharing memories the story will change. One can never only consider a single person’s memory; shared memories give a more complex story and description. It is important to get more than one side of an event.

In this video we can see that there are people who have a memory far greater than ours. But how can one measure the preciseness or the strength of one’s memory? Obviously a person’s ability to remember and memorize is very different to another person way of doing it.
" Memory is a constructive, dynamic and selective process"
People with extraordinary memories, as in the previous video, are still not able to choose what to remeber and how much of it.
The Role of Forgetting
Forgetting could be seen as a positive act, it can help us to recover from distressing past events, neuroscientists report. It enables us to leave behind clutter and trivia to retain memories that seem more important.
Memories decay - this contributes to making us unreliable eyewitnesses in a court.
Maybe sometimes we just want to remember the good that happended and forget about the bad part.
Déjà vu
A blackout is a phenomenon caused by the intake of any substance or medication in which long term memory creation is impaired, therefore causing a complete inability to recall the past.

The question is: How reliable is our memory after a blackout?

is the phenomenon of having the strong sensation that an event or experience currently being experienced has been experienced in the past, whether it has actually happened or not.
How reliable is it to trust your memory is this situation?

The suggestibility
of memory
memory can be entirely created by suggestion
known as recovered memory or false memory syndrome
Elizabeth Loftus memory experiment
usually decreases as age increases
Ways of suggesting memories

interviewer bias
repeated questions
interviewers tone
peer interaction
repeating misinformation

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