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Chapter 9: Launching a New Republic
Transcript of Chapter 9: Launching a New Republic
Washington was elected president by getting the most electoral votes.
Adams got the second most votes so he was vice-president.
For Washington's title Congress decided on “Mr. President”…this was one of the precedents that Washington set.
The Federal Judiciary Act of 1789 set up the Supreme Court with 6 members:
a Chief Justice and 5 Associate Justices.
Congress created departments and the President could appoint heads of these departments called “secretaries”.
The “secretaries” had to be approved by the senate.
These “secretaries” became known as the Cabinet.
There were three departments: War, State, and Treasury
Sec. of War was Henry Knox (Ft. Knox).
Sec. of State was Thomas Jefferson
Sec. of Treasury was Alexander Hamilton
Economic Problems for Washington
The government needed to pay off its war debts.
The U.S. had borrowed money from France and the Netherlands, states, and private citizens.
The new country had money problems, BUT Alexander Hamilton had a plan:
1.Pay off war debts.
2.Raise government revenues (this means taxes and/or tariffs)
3.Create a National Bank
NOT EVERYONE LIKED HAMILTON'S PLAN
Many southern states had already paid off their debts.
They did not like being asked to help the Northern states pay off their part of the debt.
To get southern support, the North agreed to locate
the new capitol on the Potomac River in the South between Virginia and Maryland (thus Washington D.C.)
Hamilton favored tariffs which are taxes on imported goods.
They would help raise money and encourage the growth of American industries
Hamilton’s National Bank would be a safe place to keep the country’s money
and be able to loan businesses money.
The Bank would issue paper money.
Jefferson and Madison didn't like Hamilton's plan at all.
See? They don't look happy...
Madison and Jefferson argued that the
Constitution didn’t give the govt. the right to set up a bank because a “bank” was not mentioned by name.
People like this are called strict constructionists
because they believe that the Constitution should be interpreted EXACTLY as it is written.
Hamilton referred to the “elastic” clause
(Article 1, Section 1, Clause 18) which allowed for the formation of a “bank” because the “bank” was proper and necessary.
People like this are called loose constructionists
because they feel that the Constitution can be quite flexible.
Trans-Appalachian West was the land between the App. Mountains and the Mississippi River.
Spain held nearly all of the land west of the Miss. River and also the port of New Orleans.
Spain threatened to close N.O. and stir up trouble with the Indian groups in the Southeast.
(U.S. had been smuggling
However, the strongest resistance to white settlers
was from Indian groups in the Northwest Territory.
Britain still held forts north of the Ohio River (violated the Treaty of Paris).
Brits supported the Indians.
Washington sent in a new commander, “Mad Anthony” Wayne
and his troops into the area (Waynesville, Ohio.; Ft. Wayne, Indiana)
Wayne defeated the Indians.
They signed away Ohio and Indiana to the U.S. in the Treaty of Greenville
There was a conflict over Hamilton’s tax on whiskey (Whiskey Rebellion).
Whiskey is made from grain like corn and rye grown in the middle colonies.
Farmers could process the grain into whiskey and transport it to market.It was easier than trying to transport the grain itself.
Washington was ready to defend the tax.
In October, Henry Lee took 13,000 soldiers and put down the rebellion.
In 1789 a financial crisis in France led to a revolution.
At first Americans supported the French Revolution, but it became bloody and violent.
France also declared war on Britain, Holland, and Spain.
Washington said that the U.S. should be neutral in the French Revolution AND the conflicts with other countries.
Congress made a law to support neutrality
Late in 1792 Britain began seizing U.S. cargo ships in the West Indies.
Washington sent John Jay to England and he persuaded Britain to close the forts in the Ohio River Valley and pay for damages to U.S. vessels.
This is known as JAY'S TREATY.
Opponents of Jay’s Treaty (they felt the U.S. should support France)
led attacks on Washington.
Paine (THE Thomas Paine) called Washington treacherous because he wouldn’t support the French Revolution.
Washington saw the attacks as a result of political parties that had formed and he warned against them.
Washington also warned against alliances with foreign countries because the U.S. might get sucked into a bad situation (how prophetic).
The nation was divided about how the country should be run..
favored a strong national govt.
a country in which trade, manufacturing, and cities would grow;
he and his buds formed the Federalist party which attracted merchants and manufacturers.
Jefferson and Madison distrusted a central government.
They envisioned a nation of rural farmers...after all...there was all that land.
They formed the Democratic-Republican Party
The first election not involving Washington was in 1796.
It involved political parties.
Adams was from the Federalists Party and he won.
Jefferson was the second highest "vote-getter" so he became Vice-President.
They had completely opposite viewpoints and did not work well together
When Washington left office the French were beginning to seize U. S ships because they were trading with Britain.
In 1797 France had looted more than 300 ships.
Adams sent three men to talk with the French about the piracy problem and this led to the XYZ bribery scandal.
The scandal caused Congress to cancel all treaties with France, and Adams to become the "father of the Navy."
Adams position against the French made him hugely unpopular with the Democratic-Republicans (because they backed the French).
The people who were mad at Adams started speaking out loudly against him and the government.
The Alien and Sedition Acts which targeted new immigrants (most of them were Democratic-Republicans) and free speech against the govt.
Jefferson and Madison fought these acts with the theory of “states rights”.
Kentucky Resolution: Jefferson proposed nullification (states can nullify or ignore federal law within the states; they can decide which laws are constitutional and whether or not they will obey them).
Virginia Resolution: This resolution said that states can interpose
(like an offensive lineman) themselves between the federal govt. and the citizens of the state.
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions declared the Alien and Sedition Acts unconstitutional.
Within 2 years the Democratic Republicans won control of Congress and repealed the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Adams lost the election of 1800 to Jefferson.
People were tired of Adams and his Alien and Sedition Acts.