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David Rawlings

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Transcript of Russia

AQA History A-level: Tsarist and Communist Russia, 1855-1964
Useful Links:
Exam Board:
Trying to Preserve Autocracy, 1855-1894
Map Task:
1. Label the following on your map:
Major cities
Trans-Siberian railway
Neighbouring countries
Ethnic groups
Major industrial / agricultural areas
To assess the state of Russia in 1855 - social, cultural, political, economic, geographic and religious.
Learning Objective:
C: Describe the state of Russia in 1855, making reference to key areas: social, cultural, political, economic, geographic and religious.
B: Explain Russia's strengths and weaknesses.
A: Evaluate the historical significance of these strengths and weaknesses.
an Overview
2. Add label to show cultural differences, e.g. muslim area.
3. Draw on the Ural mountains - the traditional border of Europe.
3. Create a diagram to show the structure of Russian society.
4. Briefly explain the structure of the Orthodox church.
Try to write your name in Cyrillic!
Use pp.2-6.
To assess the consequences of the Crimean war in 1855.
Learning Objective:
C: Describe the consequences of Russian failure in the Crimea.
B: Explain the implications of these.
A: Evaluate the historical significance of the loss in the Crimea.
How significant was the loss in the Crimea?
From 1853-56 Russia fought the Crimean war against an alliance of European powers, including Britain, France and Austria.
The motivation of Britain and France was to prevent the Russian Empire from taking advantage of the weak Ottoman Empire and expanding south and west into Europe and the Middle-East.
This was a strategically important area - Russian dominance could give them control over the Eastern Mediterranean and the rich trade that came with it from the East.
The charge of the Light Brigade
Sort your cards.
Task: Consequences of the Crimean War - diamond 9
EXAM ALERT: Interpretation
"The shock of defeat forced Russia to adopt a programme of sweeping internal reforms and industrialisation under Tsar Alexander II, who came to throne in early 1855."

Andrew Lambert, Laughton professor of naval history at King's College, London.
Your evaluation?
To explain the early reforms of Tsar Alexander II, 1855-64.
Learning Objective:
C: Describe the reforms made from 1855-64
B: Explain what changed with each reform.
A: Evaluate the consequences of these reforms.
What sort of a leader was Alexander II?
Why did he attempt to reform Russia?
The Reforms
Alexander II
Task: Market Stall
In groups of 3, research one of Alexander's reforms.
Present your research on A3.
Share your findings with the rest of the group.
Bald-Hairy Russian Rulers
Georgi Lvov
Nicholas I
Alexander III
Vladimir Lenin
Nicolas II
Nikita Khrushchev
Alexander II
Aleksander Kerensky
Joseph Stalin
Sort these leaders in correct order:
To assess the causes and consequences of the emancipation of the serfs.
Learning Objective:
C: Explain the causes and consequences of the emancipation.
B: Assess a range of interpretations for the emancipation of the serfs.
A: Evaluate the validity of these interpretations.
The Emancipation of the Serfs
The Process of Emancipation
Serfdom was abolished - marry, travel, vote and trade.
Peasants given land, but had to pay for it over next 49 years.
Still under the control of the Mir.
Landowners compensated for loss of land.
Three Key Aspects
1. Most peasants
received slighlty less land
than they'd worked before. Many received poor quality land that was difficult to farm.

2. Landowners received above the market value for land and could decide which parts of their land they kept.
Landlords retained 2/3rds of land.

Powers of the Mir were strengthened
. Mir was made responsible for tax collecting. If peasants left the area, land would revert to the Mir, they couldn't sell. Mir issued internal passports. Peasants were now tied the village, rather than the lord.
Peasants felt cheated
. 1,000 rebellions in 1861. The army had to be brought in to restore order on over 300 estates.
Nobles disgruntled
- felt they hadn't been compensated for loss of land.
- many landlords moved to urban areas and rented their lands. From 1862-1905 landholdings fell from 87million to 50million desyatiny.
Urban intelligentsia
felt alienated and overlooked.
- some peasants began buying the land of poorer neighbours, becoming more wealthy.
Nobody was pleased by the settlement...

Nobles threatened.
Peasants unsatisfied.
Intelligentsia alienated.
49 years
Task: Assess the interpretations
1. Link the interpretation to one of the key causes of the emcipation.
2. What evidence is there to support this view?
3. What evidence refutes this view?

BIG QUESTION: Why did Alexander II free the serfs?
Task: Wordcloud
Create a wordcloud overview of Alexander II's reforms:
Emmancipation of the serfs
Local government
How significant?
From 1m57s
To explain why Tsar Alexander II was assassinated.
Learning Objective:
C: Describe the details of the assassination.
B: Explain the views of the People's Will.
A: Make a judgement on why Alexander was assassinated.
Crime Scene Investigations

Use the clues from the crime scene to answer the following questions.

• Who?
• What?
• Where?
• When?
• How?
• Why?
Why was Alexander assassinated?
Use the key learning RAG to check your understanding so far.
Revisit any red or amber areas - use the textbook to add notes.
To chart the development of revolutionary ideas in 19th century Russia.
Learning Objective:
C: Identify revolutionary ideas and groups.
B: Explain ideas and why they emerged.
A: Assess turning points in the development of revolutionary ideas.
Opposition to the Tsar
Next Lesson:
Folder Check.

Make sure your folder is organised with notes in order.
Now turn your notes into a timeline of revolutionary thought.

Beginning in 1864 and ending in 1881.
Task: Timeline of Revolutionary Thought
Alexander's education reforms allowed universities greater freedom.
Choose own professors
Enroll women
Admit greater numbers of students, including those from lower classes. Numbers rose from 4,000 to 16,000 by 1899.
Relaxation of censorship led to wider availability of new ideas and increased criticism of the ruling regime.
Dmitry Karakazov fired 6 times at the Tsar, but spectacularly missed with every bullet.
Reaction: conservative ministers encourage Alexander to reconsider reforms.
Count Dmitry Tolstoy appointed new minister for education. He is a conservative, slavophile and harshly critical of new political ideas emerging from Europe.
Success Criteria:
Add key dates from your research.
Explain their significance.
Identify major turning points for revolutionary ideas.
Explain whether these helped or hindered the revolutionaries.
Homework: Research Russian revolutionary thought during the 19th century.
Assessing Alexander II
To evaluate interpretations of Tsar Alexander II.
Learning Objective:
C: Identify a range of historical interpretations.
B: Group the views of historians and suggest key supporting evidence.
A: Assess how far you agree with an interptation based on the evidence.
Task: Historiography
1. Read pp.31-32. Identify and note the views of historians towards Alexander.
2. Group historians with similar views. You could colour-code them.
3. Identify key supporting evidence for your groups. Explain how the evidence supports each view.
Alexander II - Tsar Liberator?
Tsar Liberator
Task: Assessment
1. Take time to read through the success criteria.
2. You may want to take 5 minutes to look through your notes and plan an answer.
3. You have 40 minutes in total to write your answer.
Other Links:
Question: Why did opposition to Tsarism grow under Alexander II?
Success Criteria:
One paragraph;
Reference to key factors: events, individuals and ideas;
Explanation of factors;
Linking and comparison;
A Judgment on the question.
Diamond 9 Task:
1. Describe the named reforms of Alexander III.
To assess the counter-reforms of Alexander III.
Learning Objective:
C: Describe the counter-reforms made by Alexander III.
B: Explain their impact - positive or negative?.
A: Evaluate the reforms - how repressive were they?
Alexander III's Counter-Reforms
2. Categorise the reforms thematically.
3. Identify whether they were positive or negative in terms of repression.
3. Sort in order of importance.
'Alexander III's reforms were a repressive step backward.'
How valid is this interpretation?
To undersand how to assess historical interpretations.
Learning Objective:
C: Identify historical interpretations.
B: Explain where you agree and disagree with an interpretation, using evidence to support your views..
A: Evaluate how valid an interpretation is, based on the wieght of supporting evidence.
Interpretations of Russia's Industrial Revolution
EXAM ALERT: Interpretation
"Many historians hold that in economic terms tsarist industrialisation was a success; a modern capitalist economy was emerging… that in 1909-13 the state was giving way to the market as the motive-force for industrial development, and that Russian capital and Russian entrepreneurship were replacing foreign capital… Certainly in the industrial sector the rate of growth of production and the pace of technical modernisation on the eve of war were on the whole impressive. And in the agricultural sector production had been growing more rapidly than population at least since the 1880s, and by 1914 the majority of peasants belonged to various forms of agricultural credit and marketing cooperatives."
Your evaluation?
What does this photograph of Hughesovka tell you about Russian industrial development from 1890-1914?
Flipped Learning:
What was Russian industry like before 1890?
Who was Witte?
What was Witte’s industrial strategy?
How successful was Witte?
What happened in 1899?
How far did Russia boom after 1908?
1. Positive or negative?
2. Highlight – agree / disagree
3. Add evidence FOR
4. Add evidence AGAINST
5. How VALID is this view?
EXAM ALERT: Interpretation
"The Tsarist economy was honeycombed with fundamental and structural problems. Although Russia by 1913 was one of the great world economic powers in sheer size, per capita terms her performance was miserable. The economy remained grossly skewed towards the agrarian sector, despite the spurt of industrialization which had taken place at the end of the nineteenth century. Structurally, Russia possessed the features of an early industrializing country and had yet to make the leap to effectively modernize her economic structures and performance."
Your evaluation?
1. Positive or negative?
2. Highlight – agree / disagree
3. Add evidence FOR
4. Add evidence AGAINST
5. How VALID is this view?
Alexander III
Alexander II
Nicholas I
Crimean War
People's Will
Black Partition
Sergey Witte
Industrial revolution
Essay Feedback
1. Read through comments carefully and record your feedback on your tracking sheet.
2. Compare your attainment to your target - did you meet your target? What do you need to do to improve?
3. Compare with your classmates - what advice can you give each other?
4. Take your essay home, re-draft it and ask Mr Rawlings to check that it is an improved answer.

Good Work Folks!
Now follow these steps to review your work:

Using pp.61-72 identify and analyse the extent of change and continuity from 1880-1914 for: workers, peasants, nobles, middle-classes, literature, the arts.
To analyse the extent of social and cultural change in Russia as a result of industrialisation.
Learning Objective:
C: Describe changes and continuity from 1880-1914 for: workers, peasants, nobles, middle-classes, literature, the arts.
B: Explain the extent of these changes.
A: Make a judgement on which areas saw the greatest change.
Social and Cultural Change, 1880-1914
3 million urban workers by 1900 - although only 2.5% of population,
1/3 of urban workers were first generation, 90% of Moscow printers sent money back to relatives in the countryside, showing close links between town and country.
Homework - Flipped Learning:
To be able to explain who opposed Nicholas II and why.
Learning Objective:
C: Identify and describe opposition to the Tsar.
B: Explain why groups/individuals opposed the Tsar.
A: Assess similarities and differences between opposition groups/individuals.
Opposition to Nicholas II
The collapse of the Russian Empire, 1894-1917
In pairs research one of the following:
Vladimir Ulyanov
Lev Bronstein
Vera Zasulich
Social Democrats
Socialist Revolutionaries
Prepare a one sheet of A4 handout to explain the following:
Reason for opposition to the Tsar
The 1905 Revolution
To assess the significance of the 1905 revolution.
Learning Objective:
C: Can describe the events of 1905.
B: Can explain the consequences of the revolution.
A: Assess how far the revolution weakened the postition of the Romanov dynasty.
What do the sources tell you about Nicholas IIs style of government?
Research Presentations:
Opposition to the Tsar
Task: To assess the similarities and differences between opposition groups / individuals.

Create a
or a
venn diagram
that compares the groups you've been looking at - highlight the similarities and differences.
1. Flipped learning - 1905 revolution

2. Challenge - watch the film Battleship Potemkin 'a modern masterpiece' - you can find it on YouTube

3. Revise for a spelling and knowledge test at the beginning of next lesson - Trotsky has 5 questions for you
'War is the locomotive of history'
Do you agree?
Leon Trotsky
Task: Annotate the cards
1. Link to our 6 themes
2. Rank in order of importance
3. Highlight key events / individuals
4. Which of the three conclusions do you think was of most importance?
Stolypin and the Duma
To assess the success of Peter Stolypin.
Learning Objective:
C: Can describe Stolypin's reforms.
B: Can explain the successes and failures.
A: Make a substantiated judgement on how successful he was.
Stolypin's Reforms
1905-1914: Over 3000 terrorists arrested, more than 1500 executed.
Land Reforms
All state and crown lands made available to the Peasants Land Bank for purchase by enterprising peasants.
Peasants allowed to withdraw from 'mir' at will.
Generation of kulaks.
Local government and Education
No. of primary schools doubled.
Zemstva expendidture on health, poor relief and agricultural advice doubled.
Passed bill for religious tolerance for Jews in Duma, although vetoed by the Tsar.
Proposed zemstva for Poland and other non-Russian areas.
'Stolypin's necktie'
Stolypin = a true liberal
Reflected ideas of Western, free-market, liberal ideology
Alienated far-left and far-right
Didn't eradicate the threat of revolution, but minimised it
Economic success, though fragile and short-lived

Assassinated at a performance of the Kiev Opera in 1911.
WW1 and the February Revolution
To assess the causes of the Feb. Revolution, 1917.
Learning Objective:
C: Can identify the causes of the revolution.
B: Can categorise, explain and substantiate the causes.
A: Weigh up the key cause of the February Revolution, 1917.
Causes of the Feb. Rev.
4th August 1914
Initial success - advance into Austria-Hungary
'Russian steamroller'

Two huge losses vs. Germans - Battle of Tannenberg and Battle of the Masurian Lakes, by December 1915 - 1 million killed, 1 million captured
Summer 1916 - Brusilov offensive - over half Austrian army killed or captured
WW1 Cont.
Lack of ammunition and equipment - in major battles only half the soldiers were armed
Lack of basic supplies and rations
Incompetent officers - appointed out of loyalty, ther than ability
Railway infrastructure wasn't able to supply the troops (as with the Crimea) or factories
8 million casualties by 1917
Inflation hit food and fuel prices - wages stagnated
Tsar Nicholas II
August 1915 - made the decision to take direct control of the army
Left Petrograd to set up headquarters on the Eastern Front
Left Tsarina Alexandria in control of the government
Two consequences: 1. Tsar blamed for military failures, 2. Chronic instability in the governement
Supposed influence over the Tsarina was unpopular
Some evidence that he influenced the appointment of government ministers - caused opposition in the Duma
Alexandria was German - led to resentment and mistrust
Raputin murdered by Prince Yusupov - in an attempt to save the regime's blushes
Progressive Bloc
Leading liberals and zemstva formed their own bodies to look after wounded and munitions supplies - such as the War Industries Committees (WICs)
Regarded with suspicion by the Tsar
July 1915 Duma - 2/3rds of deputies formed the 'Progressive Bloc' - calling for greater influence over policy and decision making
Ignored by the Tsar
Julian Calendar
February 1917
Coldest winter on record
International Women's Day - 23rd Feb.
Series of strikes - led by female textile workers
Three days of strikes and demonstrations - capitulation of armed forces in Petrograd
27th Feb. - Duma took control
2nd March Tsar Nicholas abdicated
To improve 25 mark essay answers.
Learning Objective:
C: Can identify how to improve essay answers.
B: Can make improvements based on specific targets.
A: Set a personalised target for next essay answer.
Task: You have been set a specific, personalised task to improve your essay answers.
You have 15 minutes, working in groups, to complete the task.
This will make a huge difference to your written answers!
What did you do?
What have you learnt from this activity?
How will this help with your written work?
Russia in World War One
Translation Game!
Translate the following:
Now write 5 questions to which these are the answers.
Read pp.139-143, look at the Bolshevik Decrees and measures and create a table showing the purpose of these.
To analyse the creation of the Bolshevik dictatorship.
Learning Objective:
C: Describe Bolshevik decrees and measures.
B: To explain the measures and steps taken by the Bolsheviks, e.g. the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly.
A: Make a judgement on the extent of Bolshevik control.
The Constituent Assembly & Bolshevik decrees
Eliminate Opposition
Proletarian Support
Decree on workers' control
The creation of the Cheka (Bolshevik Secret Police)
The Constituent Asembly
What was it?
What was the make-up of the assembly?
Why was it allowed?
Why was it closed?
What replaced it as the government?
Using pp. 158-161, complete the following tasks:
To analyse the creation of the Bolshevik dictatorship.
Learning Objective:
C: Terms of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and combatants in the Civil War.
B: Explain the reasons for the peace treaty and the subsequent Civil War.
A: Assess the significance of Brest-Litovsk and the strengths and weaknesses of the combatants in the Civil War.
Brest-Litovsk and the Civil War
Add the terms of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk to your map.
Who was responsible for the treaty?
Why did Lenin agree to these terms?
What were the consequences?
Who fought in the Russian Civil War? Add details to the table.
What were the key strengths and weaknesses of each side during the Civil War?
To explain the policy of War Communism and assess its impact.
Learning Objective:
C: Definition of War Communism.
B: Explanation of how it works.
A: Assess the consequences of war communism - was i a success?
War Communism
War communism, or military communism, was the economic and political system that existed in Soviet Russia during the Russian Civil War, from 1918 to 1921.
It aimed to abolish private trade, control labour, nationalize all large-scale industry, and at its height in 1920 to replace the money system with a universal system of state rationing.
Lars Lih - War Communism
The assertion that during war communism the Bolsheviks not only took grain without compensation but approved of this procedure ideologically seems to result from
a confusion between market exchange (which the Bolsheviks did oppose) and exchange in general
, including state-organized exchange. Only this confusion can account for E. H. Carr's statement that the Soviet leaders were "obstinately slow to recognize the hard fact" that "the main difficulty in securing supplies of food for the towns was . . . that no adequate return could be offered to the peasants" or for Alec Nove's argument that "the policy of requisitions and armed detachments" came to be seen as good in itself. 43 Bolshevik food-supply officials were so far from denying the importance of material exchange that in 1920 they were thrown into a panic by the imminent disappearance of even the meager goods fund that had earlier been at their disposal.
How does it work?
Razverstka - forced grain collection
Policy was a state-organised exchange - goods, protection, welfare in return for grain;
Was not solely a policy of forced aquisitions - 43 Bolshevik food-supply officials were concerned by the lack of exchangable goods to compensate for grain in 1920.
Two important points of order:
To assess how effectively Lenin dealt with the challenges of 1921.
Learning Objective:
C: Describe the challenges: Famine, Petrograd strike, Kronstadt mutiny
B: Explanation of how Lenin solved these crises
A: Assess the effectiveness of Lenin's actions
Challenges of 1921
30th December 1922 - 'The Treaty on the Creation of the Soviet Union'. A federal government with semi-autonomous regions governed by local Communist Parties.
1918 - the Bolsheviks had renamed themselves the 'All-Russian Communist Party'. From 1925 this was the 'All-Union Communist Party'. Therefore, from 1918 onwards we can refer to them as the 'Communists'.
Richard Pipes: Lenin
As far as Lenin's personality is concerned, we know first and foremost his utter disregard for human life. Except where his own family and close associates were concerned.
Task: The Challenges of 1921
Petrograd strikes
Kronstadt mutiny
Problem / Solution
One person investigates the problem, the other Lenin's solution.
To assess the success of Lenin's New Economic Policy (NEP).
Learning Objective:
C: Describe the features of the NEP.
B: Weigh up successes and failures of the NEP.
A: Assess the effectiveness of the NEP.
New Economic Policy
To assess reaons for Stalin's rise to power.
Learning Objective:
C: Identify Stalin's advantages.
B: Explain reasons for Stalin's rise.
A: Assess the significance of each factor.
The Power Struggle
To assess the success of Lenin's New Economic Policy (NEP).
Learning Objective:
C: Describe the features of the NEP.
B: Weigh up successes and failures of the NEP.
A: Assess the effectiveness of the NEP.
Young Revolutionary
Nomme de guerre - 'Koba' (after the hero of Georgian literature)

Worked as a weatherman

1902 - first arrest and exile - "reading camps"

- supported Lenin's
What is to be Done?

1904 - married Ekaterina 'Kato' and had a son - Yakov
Met Lenin in Finland during 1905 revolution - described him as a 'mountain eagle'

Returned to Georgia to the life of a Caucasian brigand - raising funds through robbery
Exiles and Organisation
25 November 1907 - Kato died of Tuberculosis
'This creature softened my heart of stone. She died and with her died my last warm feelings for people.'
(Left his son to be raised by her family)

Re-captured and exiled - Jan 1910 - fathered a son with Maria Kuzakova
1910-11 - love-affair with a 17 year old school girl, Pelageya Onufrieva
She nicknamed him 'Oddball Osip (Russian version of Joseph)'
War and Revolution
Returned to Petrograd in 1912 - roomed with Vyacheslav Scriabin - 'Molotov', meaning the hammer
1913 - took the nomme de guerre 'Stalin', meaning man of steel

1912 - wrote an article 'Marxism and the National Question' - warmly praised by Lenin - 'this wonderful Georgian'

Feb 1913 - rearrested, but light sentence - double agent?? Triple agent? Okhrana did describe him as a 'fanatical Marxist'

1917 - returned to Petrograd and took over editing Pravda from Molotov
July Days - Stalin hid Lenin, shaved his beard and organised his transport to Finland
'Grey blur', but loyal to Lenin and useful as his low-profile avoided suspicion
Civil War
Organised the defence of Tsaritsyn in 1918 - a strategically important town
Ruthless tactics - e.g. Trotsky had encouraged Tsarist officers to join the Red Army (which had helped its organisation and success), Stalin had the Tsarist officers in Tsaritsyn imprisoned on a barge, which mysteriously sank
This was the first clash with Trotsky
Joseph Vissarionovich Djugashvili
21 December 1879
6 December 1878
1894 - five rouble scholarship to the Tiflis seminary school
- 'Jesuitical methods' - spying, surveillance, violation of people's feelings

Autodidact - self-taught Marxist & Aetheist

1899 - expelled from the Seminary, joined the Social Democrats
Stalin: The journey so far...
Mother (Ekaterina 'Keke')
Father (Vissarion 'Beso') - violent, drunk
Power Struggle
1922 - became Gensec (general-secrtary) giving him sweeping powers
- annexed Georgia, Lenin disgusted at this, but stroke in 1922 prevented his opposition
- Stalin prevented Lenin working more than 10 minutes a day
Legendary row with Krupskaya, Lenin's wife, in which he suggested that, if she didn't back down. he would appoint someone else as Lenin's wife

1924 - Death of Lenin - Stalin allied with Kamenev and Zinoviev against Trotsky - Triumvirate - mainly over 'Socialism in one Country'
1926 - Switched allegiance to Bukharin and Rykov against Kamenev and Zinoviev - supported NEP
1927 - grain crisis - Stalin travelled to Siberia and forcibly requisitioned grain from kulaks - this led to split with Bukharin and Rykov, who said 'criminal charges should be filed against you!'
1928 - 'Great Turn' - allied against Bukharin and Rykov
1928 onwards - 'Vozhd'
Success Criteria:
1. Evaluative judgements
2. Engaging with interpretations
3. Detailed supporting evidence
4. Links and comparisons
5. Overall conclusion
Full transcript