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Tajikistan

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Hilola Rahimova

on 25 September 2013

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Transcript of Tajikistan

Central Asia, also known as Middle Asia, or, colloquially "the stans".
Sights of Tajikistan
Some facts about Dushanbe
The population of Tajikistan is 7,487,489 inhabitants
The word "Dushanbe" means Monday, long ago the village was a popular Monday marketplace.
Dushanbe has a population of 679,400 people.
Tajik food
"Oshi palov" - famous Tajik dish
"Shashlik" - Tajik barbecue
"Manti"(dumpling) - consist of a spiced meat mixture, usually lamb or ground beef, in a dough wrapper, either boiled or steamed.
Tajik soup - "Shurbo"
Very famous between foreigners and youth - "Qurutob". It is just salad with bread, but with special sauce.
Tajik cuisine
Tajik cuisine is the traditional cuisine of Tajikistan, and has much in common with Russian, Iranian, Afghan and Uzbek cuisines.
Palov is the national dish, and green tea is the national drink.
Usually, meals starts with dried fruits, nuts, and then soup and meat, and finishes with palov.
The Palace of Nations - one of the sights of Dushanbe, in this place conducts international forums and summits.
The highest flagpole in the world is in Dushanbe! The free-standing flagpole was built in 2011, with a height of 165 m.
Dushanbe is the small city, located in the valley and surrounded by beautiful mountains.
Night view
National library in Dushanbe
Tajik market
Chaihana's interior.
The religion of Tajikistan is Islam. Sunni Islam is the most widely practiced. The population is 98% Muslims (approximately 95% Sunni and 3% Shia).
There are around 4 000 mosque in Tajikistan.
Religion
Mosque and minarets
Mosque "Maschidi Jami", was built in 1512—1513. Located in the city of Khudjand, second biggest city of Tajikistan.
Inside of the mosque in a pray time
Gate of the mosque
During big religious holidays, they pray outside
Muslims pray five times a day and visit mosque every weak on Friday,
90% of Tajikistan are mountains, we call them Pamirs.
Since Victorian times, Pamirs are called "Roof of the World", translation from Persian: 'Bam-i-dunya'
Nature of Tajikistan: Pamirs
"Iskanderkul" (Alexander) Lake, Fann mountains
Kulikalon Lake
Pamir foothills
Pamirs - severe beauty
Sarez lake
Pamir
Fann mountains
Thank you for attention!
Welcome to Tajikistan
National anthem
"Surudi Mili" is the national anthem of Tajikistan, officialy adopted in 1991.
Tajikistan, officially the Republic of Tajikistan (or Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Çumhuriyi Toçikiston), is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia. It borders Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east.
Where is Tajikistan?
Official languages:
Tajik langauge;
Russian language.
Tajik langauge or Tajiki -
is a variety of modern Persian spoken in Central Asia.
Iran and Afghanistan speaks in Persian as well.
But they use arabic alphabet.
What we speak?
Tojiki in a tajik alphabet
All definitions of Central Asia include these five republics of the former Soviet Union: Kazakhstan (pop. 16.6 million), Kyrgyzstan (5.5 million), Tajikistan (7.6 million), Turkmenistan (5.1 million), and Uzbekistan (29.5 million), for a total population of 64.7 million as of 2012
Suffix "stan" from Persian means "land of".
National Symbols
Crown represents the tajik people, derived from "tajvar", that means "crowned";
Seven starts on the top of crown;
Red - unity of nation, sun and victory;
White - cotton and snow on the top of mountains;
Green - spiritual meaning of Islam.
Symbols were adopted in 1992.
Tajikistan in retrospect
Part of Samanid Empire
Tajikistan & Russia
Part of Soviet Union
Civil war
Samanid Empire(875–999)
The Samani dynasty , also known as the Samanid Empire, was a Sunni Persian Empire in Central Asia; was arised after the Muslim Arab conquest;
The Samanids revived Persian culture by patronizing Rudaki, Bal'ami and Daqiqi;
Islamic architecture and Islamo-Persian culture was spread deep into the heart of Central Asia by the Samanids. Following the first complete translation of the Qur'an into Persian, during the 9th century, populations under the Samanid empire began accepting Islam in significant numbers

Bukhara (the capital of Somoni Empire) and Samarkand became centres of art, science, and literature; industries included pottery making and bronze casting.

Ismaili Somoni
Ismaili Somoni are known in Tajikistan as first king (shoh) of newly formed Tajik nation.
Money, main square in the capital and the highest mountain (7,495 m) on the territory of the former Soviet Union are named after Somoni.
Greatest Persian Poet - Rudaki
Abu Abdollah Jafar ibn Mohammad Rudaki, (858 - ca. 941), was a Persian poet, and is regarded as the first great literary genius of the Modern Persian, who composed poems in the "New Persian" alphabet.
Rudaki is considered as a founder of Persian classical literature.
Only a small percentage of his extensive poetry has survived.
He was the court poet to the Samanid ruler Nasr II in Bukhara, although he eventually fell out of favour; his life ended in poverty.
Хар ки номухт аз гузашти рузгор;
Хич номузад зи хич омузгор.
*******
Har ki nomukht az guzashti ruzgor,
Hich nomuzad zi hich omuzgor.
*******
No ordinary teacher will ever reach,
He whom the passage of Time failed to teach.
Rudaki Park
Russian Empire
In the 19th century, the Russian Empire began to spread into Central Asia during the Great Game. Between 1864 and 1885 it gradually took control of the entire territory of Russian Turkestan from today's border with Kazakhstan in the north to the Caspian Sea in the west and the border with Afghanistan in the south. Tajikistan was eventually carved out of this territory, which historically had a large Tajik population.
After the overthrow of Imperial Russia in 1917, guerrillas throughout Central Asia, known as basmachi, waged a war against Bolshevik armies in a futile attempt to maintain independence. The Bolsheviks prevailed after a four-year war, in which mosques and villages were burned down and the population heavily suppressed. Soviet authorities started a campaign of secularization, practicing Muslims, Jews, and Christians were persecuted,and mosques, churches, and synagogues were closed.
The Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
Also known as the Tajik SSR for short, was one of the 15 republics that made up the Soviet Union.
Soviet Tajikistan was created in October 1924 within the predominantly Turkic Uzbek SSR as an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik ASSR) – one rank below a Soviet Socialist Republic in USSR geopolitical hierarchy.
Its capital was established in Dyushambe (today's Dushanbe), which had been a village of 3,000 in 1920. In December 1929, Tajik ASSR was detached from the Uzbek SSR and given full status as a Soviet Socialist Republic – Tajik SSR. At that time, its capital was renamed Stalinabad and the territory that is now northern Tajikistan (Sughd Province) was added to the new republic. Even with the additional territory, the Tajik SSR remained the smallest Central Asian republic.
1st Constituent Congress of the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, December 1, 1926. Dushanbe.
Volunteer squad against basmachi. Dushanbe. 1921.
A scene from the opera "The Rise of the Vosse". Tajik Theater of Opera and Ballet, Dushanbe, 1939.
Performance of "Maqom" players
A scene from the ballet "Dilbar". Tajik Theater of Opera and Ballet, Dushanbe, 1957.
Music and musical instruments
"Karnai-surnai" - joyful melody of weddings
Karnai - Surnai
"Doira" or "daf"
Shashmaqam
Shashmaqam is a Central Asian musical genre, which may have developed in the city of Bukhara. Shashmaqam means the six Maqams (modes) in the Persian language, dastgah being the name for Persian modes, and maqams being the name for modes more generally.
It is a refined sort of music, with lyrics derived from Sufi poems about divine love. The instruments of shashmaqam provide an austere accompaniment to the voices. They consist, at most concerts, of a pair of long-necked lutes, the dayra, or frame drum, which, with its jingles, is very much like a tambourine, and the sato, or bowed tanbour, which vaguely resembles a bass fiddle.
Independence and Civil war
After collapsing of the Soviet Union in 1991, Tajikistan declared its independence and almost immediately fell into the devastating Civil War.
The Civil War in Tajikistan began in May 1992 when ethnic groups from the Garm and Gorno-Badakhshan regions, which were underrepresented in the ruling elite, rose up against the national government of President Rahmon Nabiyev, in which people from the Leninabad and Kulyab regions dominated. Politically, the discontented groups were represented by liberal democratic reformists and Islamists, who fought together and later organized under the banner of the United Tajik Opposition. By June 1997, from 50,000 to 100,000 people had been killed.
President Emomalii Rahmon, UTO leader Sayid Abdulloh Nuri, and Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary-General Gerd Merrem signed the "General Agreement on the Establishment of Peace and National Accord in Tajikistan" and the "Moscow Protocol" on 27 June 1997 in Moscow, Russia, ending the war.
Civil war lasted from 1992 till 1997 and left economy in tatters...
Dushanbe riots, February 1990.
Spetsnaz (special troops) early in the war, 1992.
Remains tanks near village
Independence date: 9 September 1991
Every year, Tajik people celebrate its independence in a grand manner. But we gained our independence with a great loss.
During war, 1,2 million people were refugees inside and outside of the country. The non-Muslim population, particularly Russians and Jews, fled the country because of persecution, increased poverty and better economic opportunities in the West or in other former Soviet republics.
Emomalii Rahmon came to power in 1994, defeating former prime minister Abdumalik Abdullajanov in a November presidential election with 58% of the vote.
The elections took place shortly after the end of the war, and Tajikistan was in a state of complete devastation.
Parade for the Independence Day
Presidency in Tajikistan
On the 6 of November, 2013, will be held another elections in Tajikistan...
The first president of Tajikistan was Qahhor Mahkamov, who held the position of President of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic from November 1990.
Mahkamov served both as First Secretary and President but was forced to resign in August 1991 due to the unpopularity of his support for the August Coup of 1991 in Moscow and the resulting street demonstrations in Dushanbe.
From 1991 to 1992 the post of the president changed hands several times due to the political changes and uncertainly following the dissolution of the Soviet Union and ensuing social unrest and violence in the Tajikistan Civil War.
Since 1992 Emomali Rahmonov has held the position of the presidency. The last presidential elections were last held in 2006.
Presidential elections in Tajikistan have consistently been criticized by international observers as unfair and favoring the ruling party.
Since 1994, Emomali Rahmon is keeping the position of the President. But his third term as a president is going to end this year.
"Choi-hona" or tea-house, Dushanbe
Wooden bed for having meal and handmade cover and pillow.
Statues of the great Persian poets and scientist
18th Century Hissor Fort ,
located in the city of Khudjand,
the 2nd biggest city in Tajikistan and one of the oldest cities in Central Asia.
Rudaki Mausoleum in Panjrud, Panjakent
Writers' Union Building
One of the most famous exhibits of the National Museum of Antiquities of Tajikistan is a 12-meters long reclining Buddha statue, believed to be over 1600 years old (Buddha in Nirvana).

It was excavated by Soviet archeologists in the city of Kurgan-Tyube in southern Tajikistan, a site on the historic Silk Route that once connected Central Asia and India.

Dushanbe Buddha is known as the largest Buddha statue in Central Asia.
Buddha in Nirvana
Built in 7-6 BC, the city
Khudjand was named
Cyropolis by the king
Cyros. Later in time,
Alexander of Macedon
renamed it to "Alexandria
Eschate"(Alexandria
The Furthest). Khudjand
a major staging point on
the northern Silk Road
Sambusa Tanduri
Sambusa
Non (nan)
Tandur - clay oven.
Haji Yakoub Mosque and Madrasa, Central Mosque in Dushanbe
Fann Mountains
Inhabitant, live near "Karakul" lake. Dead sea of Pamir
Karakul lake, as known as Black lake.
Bordering river with Afghanistan,
across the river Afghan caravan
it happens to see normal road sometimes...
City in the mountains - Murqab
Karakul lake from above
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