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The History of Israel
Transcript of The History of Israel
Porter Wesson The History of Israel Background Information:
Israel was formed after World War two to compensate the persecuted Jewish people and to give these "displaced Jews" a place to live.
Israel was created on May 14th, 1948. Less than a day later it was invaded by the surrounding countries of Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq. It was called the War of Independence. It claimed about 6,000 Jews, which was approximately 1/6 of the population. It lasted about 15 months.
In 1949, the UN intervened, and after long negotiations, all invading countries other then Iraq (they refused to comply with UN wishes) signed a armistice, which ended the fighting
According to the armistice, the Coastal Plain of Galilee and the Negev belonged to Israel, Judea and Samaria were under Jordan, Egypt controlled the Gaza strip. The city of Jerusalem was divided between Jordan and Israel. After many years of struggle and hardship, the Jewish people began to build their country.
The first Knesset, or Parliament, consisted of 120 people and followed their first national elections of January 25, 1949.
David Ben-Gurion, who was the head of the Jewish Agency, was chosen to be the first Prime Minister. Chaim Weizmann, who was the head of the World Zionist Organization, was elected by the Knesset to be the first president.
On May 11, 1949, Israel took its place in the UN as the 59th member. Building A Country By 1951, over 687,000 Jews had come to Israel.
The Israeli economy grew rapidly within the next decade thanks to large funds from the U.S. and also large Holocaust reparations. Israel growing Israel Defending Their New Home Chaim Weizmann - President David Ben-Gurion - Prime Minister The Suez Crisis The Israeli-Egyptian armistice signed in 1949 was violated when Egypt cut off the Suez canal and the straits of Tiran. These actions effectively cut off Israel's trade with Asia, which crippled their economy
In July of 1956, Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal, which threatened Britian and Frances' oil interests. They joined forces with Israel and took control of the Suez Canal as well as the entire Sinai peninsula.
After recovering from shock, both the UN and the US voiced strong opposition to the attack. The countries left Egypt, but before leaving, Israel declared that if their ports were blocked again, they would consider this an act of war Tensions Leading Up
to the Six Day War After the 1956 suez crisis, tensions continued to grow between Israel and Arab nations.
Tensions also grew between the Arab nations as they were all fighting for dominance in the Arab world.
In order to quiet internal dissent many Arab nations increased their anti-Israeli posture The Palestinian Liberation Organization The Arab states create the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) to further their attempts in controlling Palestine.
According to the founding charter, The PLO's goal was to liberate Palestine through violence.
The fatah, which was the largest section of the PLO, began terrorist attacks on Israel and it's populace in 1965. U.S. and Soviet involvement The Arab-Israeli tensions were also increased because of the contributions made by the U.S. and the Soviet Union.
The soviets supplied radical Arab states with military and political support and the U.S. likewise supplied the same to conservative Arab states and to Israel. In 1967, the Arab states, heavily supplied with Soviet weapons and their full support, felt ready to confront Israel. Also, when Syria-the Soviets closest allies in the Arab states-lost 13 planes, which sparked the events to come. Arab troops marched close to the Gulf of Aquaba and Israel saw this as a "casus belli". Israel then proceded to bomb airfields in Egypt, Syria, Iraq, and Jordan and then launched ground attacks on the advancing Arab troops and defeat them. This ended the Six Day War. Growing tensions Yom Kippur War In October of 1973, a joint Arab attack, planned by the Egyptian president Anwar Sadat was unleashed upon Israel.
This attack took place on Yom Kippur, the holiest of Jewish holidays.
The Israelies were caught by suprise and suffered a great amount of casualties.
During the attack, Arab forces recaptured a portion of the territory that was lost during the Six Day War, however, Israel quickly launched a counter attack and gained the territory back.
After several weeks, both sides agreed to a truce. Israel today Efforts At Peace In November 1977, the world was shocked when Egyptian president Anwar Sadat extended a hand of peace to Israel. In doing so, Egypt was the first Arab country to recognize right to exist.
Sadat proposed that in exchange for Peace, Israel was to return territory seized in the Six Day War and also to recognize the rights of the Palestinians. In 1978, the US president, Jimmy Carter, invited Sadat and the Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin to Camp David in pursuit of reaching an agreement
13 days later, an agreement was reached that granted Israel legitimacy and returned the Senai peninsula to Egypt.
This agreement was called the Camp David Accords.
World leaders praised Sadat at his initiative to bring peace. Because of his actions, many Arab nations were enraged and he was later assassinated in 1981. Despite the Camp David accords, Palestine and Israel continued to clash
In 1982, Israel went as far as invading Lebanon in order to destroy Palestinian strongholds.
In 1987 Palestinians began a campaign of civil disobedience called the Inftifada. this took the form of boycotts, attacks on Israeli soldiers, and vandalism and continued into the 1990's. The Oslo Peace Accords Negotiations between the Palestinian territories and the government that controlled them proved ineffective
In 1993, talks held in Oslo, Norway, produced an agreement called the Declaration of Principles of the Oslo Peace Accords
Under the prime minister, Yitzhak Rabin, Palestinians were granted self rule in the Gaza Strip.
Because of this agreement, Rabin was assassinated in 1995 by right-wing Jewish extremists. Peace Slips Away In 1999, Ehud Barak became the new Israeli prime minister, which boosted the peace negotiations between Israel and Palestine.
In July of 2000, president Bill Clinton, hosted a 15 day summit at Camp David between Barak and Arafat, however no compromise was reached
Because of israeli political leader, Ariel Sharon, visiting a jewish holy place, a second intifada was launched.
The second Intifada used suicide bombers which increased the level of bloodshed.
In response, Palestinian refugee camps were invaded and Arafat's headquarters bombed
Ariel Sharon, the elected prime minister, refused to negotiate and therefore no peace has been made.
In 2003, the first Palestinian prime minister, Mahmoud Abbas was elected. President George W. Bush attempted to bring Sharon and Abbas together to reach some sort of agreement. However no agreement was reached. Israel continues to struggle with many Arab nations
The current prime minister, Benjamin Netanyaho, continues to try to negotiate peace with the surrounding nations while constantly fending off attacks. 1. Elizabeth Stephens
"America, Israel and the Six Day War." History Today.
Web. 07 June 2013.
2. Joan Bokaer
"The Rise of the Religious Right in the Republican Party." Creation of Israel.
Web. 07 June 2013.
3. Author Unknown
"Israel Record." The 1956 Sinai Campaign.
Web. 07 June 2013.
4. Thomas L. Friedman
Web. 07 June 2013.
5. McDougal Littell
"ClassZone - World History." ClassZone - World History.
Web. 07 June 2013.
http://www.classzone.com/books/wh_modern/ Works Cited