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Transcript of Chapter 4
Gave us an insite on eighteenth-century backcountry. 1st national census - 1790
-rapid population growth
-thousands of non-Europeans arrived in search of land and to become independent farmers
-backcountry a region streched approximately 800 miles fom western pennsylvania to Georgia Eighteenth Centurly Spanish empire shapes borderland societits
1821 : Mexico declared independance from Madrid
Spanish empire includes widely dispersed settlement such as San Francisco, San Diego , Santa Fe, San Antonio
Creating multicultural sicieties Kristina Parcher Religious Revivals in Provincial Societies The Great Awakening Constructing an Anglo-american identity Tention in the back country English rulers transport thousands of lowland scotrish presbyterians to northern Ireland in hopes of dominating Catholic Irland. - That failed.
Poor harvest cause Scots-Irish to emigrate to America.- Most landed in Philadelphia- Moved into Pennsylvania Scots-Irish Flee English Oppression -Moved from the upper Rhine Valley
-Lutherans began to move into the middle colonies
-Henry Melchior Muhlenberg helped the Germans out in this difficult cultural change- Germans search for a better life Spanish Borderlands of the eighteenth century Juan de Onate leads spanish settlers to establish European communities nort of the Rio Grande
Majo rebellion 1680 -Led by el pope drove whites out of new mexico
Concern over French encrouchment in the Southeast led Spain to colonize St. Augustine in 1565 Conquering the northern frontier Native Americans Stake out a middle ground Native Americans are contesting english settlers for control of coastal lands and are suffering tremendously from contagious diseases
-The indians survive
- Move to The area between Appalachian Mountains and the missipp i river.
-new indian groups created due to major population loss.
-Middle ground- a geographical area where 2 distinct cultures can come together with neither having a clear upper hand. Peoples of the Spanish Borderlands Spanish outposts growing slowely
A few Catholic priests and administrators traveled to the northern provinces but threat from indians prevent travel of ordanary colonists.
-Few European woman caused spanish men to be with indaian women creating meztizos. The Impact of European ideas in American Culture American Enlightenment -Age Of Reason
Intellectual revolution ( new radical ideas swept through salons and universities)
Europe's greatest minds like Newton, Locke, Voltaire and Hume
Philosophers bringing in more optimistic ideas about sin Benjamin Franklin 1706-1790 -Investigation of electricity made him famous
- 1756 Invented the lighning rod Econimic Transfomation Economy is good and keeping up with stunning population growth.
- Abundant land and the growth of agriculture is keeping the economy good.
-Furs added to restricted list 1722
-white pines act 1711 , 1722 and 1729 forbiddding americans fom cutting white pines withouth a licsence these good trees were being reserved for the royal navy
-1733- Molasses act (sugar act)
-Felt act 1732
-iron act 1750 Birth of a consumer society Colonist buying more English goods . increased by 360%
This is making the English economy great and declining colinial. 1740-1770 Colonist questioning vitality of previous thoughts in religion
Jonathan Edwards accepts Calvinism
Led to revival but was passsed to George
---The idea of avoiding damnation to hell through good works is created. Evangelical Religion itinerant preachers - traveled from settlement to settlement throughout the colonies to spread their message
-Gilbert Tennant- a Scots-irish Presbyterian
"On the danger of an unconverted ministry - 1741
"New Lights"- Men and woman who wanted to hear the itinerants.
After this many issues were raised about the accountability of former thoughts and claims on religion. The political history of the eighteenth century illuminates a growing tension within the empire. Clash of Political Cultures Governing the colonies: The American Experience Colonist ideas of mixed constitution were mistaken. By mid - century most of the mainland colonies had royal governors appointed by the crown.
Royal governors were appointed through connections and had much power but did not look like kings.
-Adult white males who owned land could vote.
Not usual democracies- they could vote but the trick was to exercise it. Colonial Assemblies Elected members of the colonial colonies believed that they had the obligation to preserve colonial liberties.
1710 - 1722 Alexander Spotswood - Virginia's governor attempted a new land programs backed by the crown - When this failed he tried chinanery.
-William Shirley - Massachusetts officer.-1741-1757
In this time people were getting far in their positions in office and gaining wealth trough connections on higher offices.
- The law became very English in Character. Century of Imperial War A century of conflict: Major Wars
New England troops assault Quebec under Sir William Phips
Treaty of Ryswick King Williams War Queen Annes War 1702-1713
Attack on Deerfield
Treaty of Utrecht King George's War 1743-1748
New England forces capture Louisbourg under William Pepperell
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle French and Indian War 1756-1763
British and Continental forces capture Quebec under Major General James Wolfe
Peace of Paris ALbany Plan- envisioned tformation of grand council to oversee matters of common defense.