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Bransford Chapter 4

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Julie Vu

on 5 October 2013

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Transcript of Bransford Chapter 4

Intelligence is a fixed property
vs.
Intelligence is malleable
Importance of shared social and situational contexts
CHAPTER 4
How Children Learn
Z .P.D.
"Children lack knowledge and experience but not reasoning"
Active role of learners in their social environment
Importance of shared social and
situational contexts
competence motivation
THE ZONE
Multiple Intelligences
Children can learn almost anything through will and effort
Entity Theorists
Self-Directed
Other-Directed
Learning

Flexible learning strategies
VS.
Incremental Theorists
KEAN
perform well
GOOD JUDGMENTS
NO ASSESSMENTS
Different strategies work for different students based on their knowledge of their own learning.----
Kaitlin
Predisposition to learn
some things over others
learners can navigate with aid from a supportive context
(Natalie)
"
Don't expose my failure!!!!
"
Young children are actively engaged in making sense of their worlds.
mnemonics, clustering (organizing knowledge into meaningful chunks)-
Kaitlin
Communication
- behavior that is appropriate & effective for a given situation

intelligence can be improved by effort AND WILL!!!!
S.G.
Katie Hockema
S.G.
Infants are not blank slates as previously believed; they have inherent, requisite knowledge--
C.W.
Prior success
S.G.
Lea
Upper boundaries change as learners acquire knowledge and competence
"challenge me"
Privileged domain
- young children already begin to have learning biases
C.W.
Children lack knowledge and experience but not reasoning ability.
(Natalie)
Learners Potential with Capable People
The roles of more capable peers, parents, and other partners are an important part of developing, challenging, and extending a child's efforts to understand the world around them
Children's biology and ecology
S.G.
Kaitlin
high persistence
Encompasses the area between what students can do on their own (actual developmental level) and what they can do with guidance from adults or peers--
Entity theories vs. Incremental theories
Verbal vs. Nonverbal
S.G.
Kaitlin
Internal rewards
External rewards
KEAN
C.W.
S.G.
S.G.
Lea
privileged domains center on broadly focused categories
physical and biological
causality
number
language
Scaffolding
young children’s learning capacities
o Early predisposition to learn about some things but not others
o Strategies and metacognition
Theories of mind
o Some theorists argue that there is more than one way to learn, more than one way to be “intelligent.”
o Children and community


 Vygotsky’s “communities of learners”
FOUR MAJOR AREAS
S.G.
Communication
S.G.
Lizard
C.W
Learning is influenced by social interactions
Without these shared social experiences, language acquisition cannot take place because these experiences play a major role in helping children discover the meaning of words and sentence structure. (p. 94)---
Kaitlin
Lea
Should each intelligence be nurtured in curricula or specific ones?
The way parents set up a child's
environment affects their learning
& how many verbal/ nonveral cues they pick-up
Natalie made this
Language spoken in the house
"Children are both problem solvers and problem generators; they not only attempt to solve problems presented to them, but they also seek to create novel challenges"


When a child has previous experience with certain situational contexts and environments their behavior is more likely to transfer to a similar situational context in a productive way. The environment can "prompt" behaviors if there is previous thinking about the action/behavior.
S.G.
Specifically in special education, community based learning in specific situational contexts is beneficial because it helps students learn and understand specific skills in an actual realistic environment related to that skill.--
Kaitlin
K.H.
Questioning
lizard
Observing/ Eavesdropping
- how children who are not directy
in conversation wittheir parents learn
thorugh observing adults & creating
own understanding
p.102
C.W.
various learning strategies :
Rehearsal-repeating items over and over, improving recall
Elaboration-improving retention of more meaningful concepts
Summarization-increasing retention and comprehension
Clustering-organizing knowledge
Chunking effect
Natalie
C.W.
C.W
Lea
Most children fall on the continuum or may be simultaneous in various subject matter
C.W.
(internal motivation vs. external motivation)
Language development depends on the situation and environment that children are exposed to; affects their biological predispositions--
Kaitlin
internal motivations can foster metacognition
Within reach, you can teach
developing metacognitive strategies
Hard-wired to learn language,
but you have to be around people to development
Full transcript