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Jazz History Timeline

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by

Sydnie Reynolds

on 12 September 2013

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Transcript of Jazz History Timeline

Jazz History Timeline
1897:
Storyville
Opens
1901:
Victrola introduced
1903: First powered airplane flight
by the Wright brothers
1896
Important cities in the ragtime period:
Kansas City, Chicago
Ragtime
Characteristics
Highly syncopated
Ragged time feel
Written music
Strict tempo
Form and harmony important
Performed on piano
Composer
Scott Joplin
1868-1917
The Entertainer
Maple Leaf Rag
1906:
First radio broadcast
1912:
Titanic sinks

1914:
WWI begins
Panama Canal opens
1915:
First transcontinental
telephone call
1917
Important cities in early jazz:
New Orleans, Chicago, New York
Early Jazz
1917:
First jazz recording by
Original Dixieland Jazz Band
1918:
WWI ends
1919:
Prohibition of alcohol
1920:
First radio station
KDKA, Pittsburgh
1925:
Charleston dance craze
1927:
Sound for motion pictures
1929:
Stock market crash,
Great Depresson begins
1930
Characteristics:
Roots: blues, ragtime, and brass band literature
Combo style of peformance
Collective improvisation
(polyphonic)
Two-beat feel
Musicians had specific roles in ensemble
Eubie Blake (1883-1983)
W. C. Handy (1873-1958)
Scott Joplin (1868-1917)
Joseph Lamb (1887-1960)
James Scott (1886-1938)
Tom Turpin (1873-1922)
Musicians
Composer
Louis Armstrong
1901-1971
Struttin' With Some Barbeque
West End Blues
Musicians and Bands
Louis Armstrong (1901-1971) Trumpet
Sidney Bechet (1897-1959) Clarinet
Bix Beiderbecke (1903-1931) Trumpet
Fletcher Henderson (1898-1952) Piano
Jimmie Lunceford (1902-1947) Alto Sax
Jelly Roll Morton (189-1941) Piano
King Oliver (185-1938) Piano
Kid Ory (1886-1973) Trombone

The Creole Jazz Band
The Hot Five (Louis Armstrong)
The Hot Seven
Original Dixieland Jazz Band
Red Hot Peppers

West End Blues
Struttin' With Some Barbecue
Maple Leaf Rag
Recorded on a Pianola Roll
The Entertainer
1902
Jelly Roll Morton
Bix Beiderbecke
1933:
FDR, President
1935:
Benny Goodman's
"Let's Dance" radio program
1935:
Gershwin's
"Porgy and Bess"
1936:
Jesse Owens wins four
gold medals at Berlin Olympics
1939:
Germany invades Poland, WWII begins
Important cities in the swing era:
Kansas City, Chicago, New York
Characteristics:
Large ensembles
Swinging eighth notes
Solo improvisation
Written arragements
Steady rhythmic pulse
Riffs and shout choruses
Full saxophone section

Swing Era
Musicians
Harry "Sweets" Edison
(1915-1999)
Duke Ellington
(1899-1974)
Coleman Hawkins
(1904-1960)
Fletcher Henderson
(1898-1952)
Earl Hines
(1903-1983)
Art Tatum
(1909-1956)
Thomas "Fats" Waller
(1904-1943)
Mary Lou Williams
(1910-1981)
Lester Young
(1909-1959)

Composer
Duke Ellington
1899-1974
Mood Indigo
It Don't Mean a Thing
(If It Ain't Got That Swing
Thomas "Fats" Waller
1940:
Great Depression ends
1941:
Attack on Pearl Harbor
1941:
Penicillin first
used to treat humans
1944:
D. Day at Normandy
1944:
Glenn Miller vanishes
over English Channel
1945:
Atomic bomb,
WWII ends
1941
1945
Band Leaders
Count Basie
Cab Calloway
Tommy Dorsey
Billie Eckstine
Duke Ellington
Benny Goodman
Lionel Hampton
Fletcher henderson
Harry James
Andy Kirk
Jimmie Lunceford
JayMcShann
Glenn Miller
Benny Moten
Don Redman
Artie Shaw
Chick Webb
Paul Whiteman
Glenn Miller
(1904-1944)
Count Basie
(1904-1984)
Compositions
Air Mail Special
I'm Getting Sentimental Over You
Jumpin' at the Woodside
King Porter Stomp
Mood Indigo
Moten Swing
One O'Clock Jump
Satin Doll
Shiny Stockings
Sing, Sing, Sing
Stompin' at the Savoy
Take the "A" Train
The Stampede
Wrappin' It Up
Vocalists
Louis Armstrong
Ernie Andrews
Tony Bennett
Ray Charles
June Christie
Nat King Cole
Ella Fitzgerald
Eddie Jefferson
Johnny Hartman
Billie Holiday
Shirley Horn
Peggy Lee
Carmen McCrae
Mark Murphy
Frank Sinatra
Bessie Smith
Sarah Vaughan
Dinah Washington
Joe Williams
1945:
Charlie Parker collaborates with Dizzy
Gillespie to perform what would become bebop
1947:
Parker records
"Scrapple From the Apple"
1949:
Birdland opens
1949
Bebop
Cool Jazz
1949
1949:
Miles Davis/Gil Evans
"Birth of the Cool"
1950-1953:
Korean War
1950:
Beat era begins
1950:
USSR and China
sign a 30-year pact
1952:
First electric guitar by Les Paul
1955:
Art Blakey & The Jazz Messengers
1954:
School segregation outlawed
by the U.S. Supreme Court
1955:
Montgomery bus boycott
1955:
Bird dies
Characteristics:
Fast-paced tempos
small combos
Compl harmonies, melodies, and rhythms
Riffs and improvisation
Unison lines
Clipped phrase endings
Greater use of dissonance
Listening (not for dancing)
Performed in small clubs
Head charts
Composer
Charlie "Bird" Parker
1920-1955
Anthropology
Confirmation
Ornithology
Dizzy Gillespie
Dizzy Gillespie
(1917-1993)
Dexter Gordon
(1923-1990)
J.J. Johnson
(1924-2001)
Thelonious Monk
(1917-1982)
Charlie Parker
(1920-1955)
Oscar Peterson
(1925-2007)
Bud Powell
(1924-1966)
Max Roach
(1925-2007)
Musicians
Dizzy Gillespie Sextet
Dexter Gordon Quartet
Thelonious Monk Trio
Charlie Parker Quintet
Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie Quintet
Oscar Peterson Trio
Bud Powell Trio
Max Roach/Clifford Brown Quintet
Important Groups
Compositions
Afternoon in Paris
Billie's Bounce
Criss Cross
Donna Lee
Evidence
Groovin' High
In Walked Bud
Ko-Ko
Manteca
A Night in Tunisia
Now's the Time
Parisian Thoroughfare
'Round Midnight
Shaw Nuff
1956
1960
Important cities in the cool jazz era:
Los Angeles
Important cities in the bebop era:
New York
Characteristics:
Lighter and softer sounds
Shorter improvisations
Slow to fast tempos
Little vibrato
Simpler melodies and rhythms
Greater use of arrangements
Use of classical instruments
flute, clarinet, bass clarinet, French horn
Composer
Dave Brubeck
1920-2012
Chet Baker
(1929-1988)
Dave Brubeck
(1920-2012)
Miles Davis
(1926-1991)
Paul Desmond
(1924-1977)
Bill Evans
(1929-1980)
Stan Getz
(1927-1996)
Gerry Mulligan
(1927-1996)
Shorty Rogers
(1924-1994)
Bud Shank
(1926-2009)
Musicians
Miles Davis
1926-1991
Chet Baker Quartet
Dave Brubeck Quartet
Gerry Mulligan Quartet
Miles Davis Nonet
Modern Jazz Quartet
Important Groups
All Blues
Bernie's Tune
Boplicity
Con Alma
Coup de Gras
Django
Move
So What
Subconscious Lee
Walkin' Shoes
Compositions
Hard Bop
Free Jazz
Important cities in the hard bop era:
New York, Philadelphia, Detroit, San Fransisco
Characteristics:
Tightly arranged tunes
Tenor sax, trumpet, piano, bass, and drums
Hard-driving rhythms
Emotional emphasis
Original forms
Fun, soul, blues, and gospel-derived
Latin elements often employed
Characteristics:
Acoustic
Experimentation with new textures and tonal colors
Free, collective improvisation
Few predetermined harmonies
Unusual instrumentation (double quartet)
Steady tempo is not an issue
Sketchy ensemble arrangements
Visual effects
Important cities in the free jazz era:
Los Angeles, New York
Albet Ayler
(1936-1970)
Lester Bowie
(1941-1999
Anthony Braxton
b. 1945
Don Cherry
(1936-1995)
Ornette Coleman
b. 1930
Eric Dolphy
(1928-1964)
Sun Ra
(1914-1993)
Cecil Taylor
(1929-1981)
Art Ensemble of Chicago
World Saxophone Quartet
Musicians and Groups
Composer
Ornette Coleman
b. 1930
1957:
Little Rock, Arkansas race riots;
Russians launch Sputnik
1958:
U.S. launches Explorer;
Jet airline service begins
1962:
U.S. astronaut, John
Glenn orbits the earth
Composer
John Coltrane
(1928-1967)
Blue Rondo a al Turk
Take Five
Blue Train
Giant Steps
Cannonball Adderley
(1928-1975)
Art Blakey
(1919-1991)
Clifford Brown
(1930-1956)
John Coltrane
(1928-1967)
Miles Davis
(1926-1991)
Joe Henderson
(1937-2001)

Musicians
Freddie Hubbard
(1938-2008)
Charles Mingus
(1922-1979)
Sonny Rollins
b. 1930
Horace Silver
b. 1928
McCoy Tyner
b. 1938

1960:
Sit-ins against
segregation begin
1963:
March on Washington D.C.;
President Kennedy assassinated
1964:
Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits job discrimination on
the basis of sex, color, race, national origin, and religion

1964:
Coltrane records
"A Love Supreme"
1968:
Dr. Martin Luther Kind Jr. assassinated;
Robert Kennedy assassinated
1969
Sonny Rollins
Clifford Brown
Fusion
Important cities in the free jazz era:
Los Angeles, San Francisco, New York
1969:
U.S. troops withdraw
from Vietnam
1969:
Miles Davis ushers in fusion era
with Bitches Brew
1971:
Louis Armstrong Dies
1972:
Watergate scandal
1974:
Duke Ellington dies,
President Nixon resigns
Characteristics:
Synthesizer effects
Electronic keyboard
Electric bass
Steady rhythm
Straight eighth notes
Rock beats
Intricate unison melodies
Vamp section
Modal harmonies
Composer
Herbie Hancock
b. 1933
Free Jazz
Lonely Woman
Cantaloupe Island
Dolphin Dance
Watermelon Man
Gary Burton (Vibes)
b. 1943
Chick Corea (Piano)
b. 1941
Miles Davis (Trumpet)
(1926-1991)
Keith Jarrett (Piano)
b. 1945
Pat Metheny (Guitar)
b. 1954
Wayne Shorter (Saxophone)
b. 1933
Joe Zawinul (Piano)
(1932-2007)
The Brecker Brothers
Headhunters
Jeff Lorber Group
The Mahavishnu Orchestra
The Pat Metheny Group
Return to Forever
Steps Ahead
Weather Report
The Yellowjackets
Musicians
Important Groups
Wayne Shorter
Chick Corea
Toshiko Akiyoshi
Louis Bellson
Don Ellis
Maynard Ferguson
Bob Florence
Woody Herman
Bill Holman
Thad Jones
Mel Lewis
Stan Kenton
Rob McConnell
Sammy Nestico
Buddy Rich
Doc Severinsen
Bill Watrous
Patrick Williams
New Big Band Leaders
Mood Indigo
It Don't Mean A Thing
(If It Ain't Got That Swing)
Full transcript