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Working With African American Cleints as a Social Worker
Transcript of Working With African American Cleints as a Social Worker
November 6, 2012 Working with African-American Clients Different Approaches to consider when counseling African-American Clients The Africentric Approach Group Counseling Individual Counseling Counseling the African-American Male The historical construct of the african-male stereotype The Humanistic Approach Unintelligent Drug addicted Incarcerated Unemployable Animalistic Violent Sexual Predators Step 1 to Helping African-American Clients: Learning and Understanding the History African-Americans have been subjected to racial discrimination and harsh stereotypes for centuries Unjust treatment by the Criminal Justice system The Civil Rights Movement Slavery Attitudes Towards
- Services are generally used inconsistently amongst African-Americans. - Cultural Beliefs; Problems need to be resolved within the family.
- Values of kinship and not showing weakness to outsiders. This fear is also influenced by:
- Worries that provider will lack cultural sensitivity and have inadequate knowledge of the culture -Afraid to talk about: racism, financial stressors, discrimination, community trauma 1989
Charles Stuart Case The Central Park Five In 1989 5 African-American and Latino teenagers were wrongly accused of rapping and murdering a white woman jogging in central park. A 31 year old serial rapist confessed to the crime thirteen years later by then all the teens had served their time. Why?
- Stigma; fear of being ostracized or not accepted. Being Culturally Responsive -Allow client to explore feelings, concerns, perceptions without them feeling you will de-legitimize or act defensively towards their concerns.
-As a counselor you can work to change policy or social climate in school or institution employed in. Conducting counseling, training on diversity, and advocacy would be appropriate means. The African-American Adolescent Poverty, poor health, violence, lacking education, crime, and low SES are usually the issues focused on when people think about African-American adolescents but there is a much broader spectrum of problems facing this population. - A counselor should keep open-minded that certain issues may not affect every socio-economic status but issues such as racism, discrimination, identity issues and intra-racial stressors can exist amongst all groups regardless of status. Cultural Responsive Counseling Requires, "an ethic of caring and understanding in an effort to build bridges between children whose cultures and backgrounds do not necessarily mirror the cultural dictates of mainstream American society.
- Recognizes that there are various dimensions and contexts regarding race, culture, class, gender, geography, sexual orientation and religion. Values present in the African-American Culture Significance of the collective in contrast to the individual
Affiliation with extended families
Kinship Spirituality and kinship are generally thought of as two values and networks that African-Americans use when having to handle crisis. Research has affirmed that a decrease in foster care, depression,and economic problems have been influenced by spirituality and kinship. Religion, Spirituality, and the Church Religion in the African-American culture has been used as a form of refuge since the time of slavery.
The church provided: education, and offered emotional, social, and financial aid to the community and was used by parents in order to provide children with a moral foundation. The Difference between Religion and Spirituality:
Religion is the, "attendance at a religious service and participation in an organized form of religion.
Spirituality in contrast is, "the personal beliefs that give meaning to existence and provide a sense of connection to the universe or a higher power. " Multisystems Model Cultural Informants As a counselor it is important for you to: Emphasize personhood of client as they may feel society does not view them as "fully" human by using a humanistic perspective such as historical racial oppression. The client may not feel like they hold a place of importance in society due to how they are portrayed to the general masses. The African-American Woman Education and professional status have impacted the upward mobility of African-American women. Still they must face double-minority status (racial and gender discrimination. African-American women with more education are more likely to seek services. Group therapy provides a safe environment where topics such as role conflict, powerlessness, and where goals both career and professional can be discussed comfortably. Counseling Tools to implement when working with African-Americans As a counselor you should be:
open to understanding how race, culture, and class interact with one another. Must be able to be comfortable when client is discussing these issues to avoid superficial disclosures.
Although as an African-American the client may feel more comfortable with an African-American provider most services are cross-cultural. Provider should be aware of their own values, biases, attitudes, and cultural heritage.
Focus on ethical standards, measures for outcomes, and cultural competency standards as well as guidelines Questions? Role Play Summary:
Tiffany a 10th Grade African American
SES:Upper-middle class. An AP student in orchestra and on a gymnastics team. Parents both attorneys.
Experiencing issues feeling socially accepted by her fellow African-American and White peers. White Privilege 1. Never asked to speak for all white people.
2. Going to a hairdresser's shop and finding someone who can cut their hair.
3. Not having to worry if someone is following them around the store because of their race.
4. Not having to think they are getting pulled over because of their race.
5. Being able to easily find and associate with people of your race or ethnic background, and people not seeing you as "isolating" yourself from other races of people (such as individuals of a minority group).
6. Not always feeling like you have to prove you are not the "stereotype" of your race. (Examples: liking specific types of music, dressing, talking, acting a certain, having particular hobbies, being able to do certain things)
7. Not usually worrying that you may not get a job because of you're race
8. Not always wondering if people are seeing you as an individual or always associating you with your race Trayvon Martin Case References Day-Vines, N. L., Patton, J. M., & Baytops, J. L. (2003). Counseling African American Adolescents: The Impact ofRace, Culture, and Middle Class Status. Professional School Counseling, 7(1), 40-51.
Smith, J. R., & Wermeling, L. (2007). Counseling Preferences of African American Women. Adultspan: Theory Research & Practice, 6(1), 4-14. Daniels, J. E. (2001). Africentric social work practice. International Social Work, 44(3), 301-310. Frame, M., & Williams, C. (1996). Counseling African Americans: Integrating spirituality in.. Counseling & Values, 41(1), 16. BELL-TOLLIVER, L., & WILKERSON, P. (2011). The Use of Spirituality and Kinship as Contributors to Successful Therapy Outcomes with African American Families. Journal Of Religion & Spirituality In Social Work, 30(1), 48-70. doi:10.1080/15426432.2011.542723 Johnson, P. D. (2006). Counseling African American Men: A Contextualized Humanistic Perspective. Counseling & Values, 50(3), 187-196. Vontress, C. E., & Epp, L. R. (1997). Historical Hostility in the African American Client: Implications for Counseling. Journal Of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 25(3), 170-184. Zastrow, C. Introduction to: Social work and social welfare. 10th Edition. California, United States (2010). http://www.voamass.org/ClientResources/Images/Massachusetts/African%20America%20teen%20boy%20b_w.jpg
http://handsonblog.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/dr-martin-luther-king-jr-quote.jpg So what happened? The counselor consulted with two cultural informants (an African-American counselor in her dept. and a local minister of a congregation who served on the Advisory board)
Counselor helped Tiffany's counselor get a better understanding of issues Tiffany was facing.
The minister encouraged the counselor to ask about Tiffanys spirituality/religion suggesting a church youth group. Found groups that would help Tiffany feel empowered.
Workshops were held to encourage cultural competency in the classroom.