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Lecture 1 - Introduction, CT Process, Standard Form

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Daniel Gluch

on 28 August 2016

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Transcript of Lecture 1 - Introduction, CT Process, Standard Form

Critical Thinking
A Method of deciding what to believe or how to act
Arguments
Do the work of Critical Thinking
Analyze
What does the argument say
Evaluate
Is it a good argument? Why or why not?
Decide
Do I accept or reject the conclusion?
Why or why not?
Communicate
Make arguments that others can understand.
Engage
Communicate and listen to others and their beliefs in a way that would not be called arguing
Are conclusions supported by 1 or more
reasons (premises)
How does it say it?
Express your beliefs.
Conclusion
You enrolled in this class
Support 1
its an A3 requirement
Support 2
its only 2 days a week
Support 3
You looked me up on ratemyprofessor.com
Or, the other way around
Premise 1
its an A3 requirement
Premise 2
its only 2 days a week
Premise 3
You looked me up on ratemyprofessor.com
Conclusion
You enrolled in this class
Example of Arguments


Why did you sign up for this class?
The claim being supported
In-Class Assignment #1
Basic CT Process
Issue

Data Gathering

Principle of Action

Check for Consistency

Conclusion and Reason
Issue
What are the options?

What is to be decided?
Data Gathering
Facts
Pros and Cons
Possible Outcomes
Probabilities
Principle of Action
What Principle can help you make a decision based on the data?
Check for Consistency
Do I use conflicting data for support?

Does the Principle of Action conflict with other principles I believe to be true or consider Good?
Conclusion
and Reasons
CT Process
- YOLO
- Do no harm
- Carpe Diem
- Path of least resistance
- Survival of the fittest
- Ovaries before brovaries
- What kind of person does/believes this?
We must recognize and admit our own biases that affect our reasoning
Not Purely Objective
What affected their process and reasoning in the clip?
Decision Making Video
1) What did you conclude
2) What were the primary reasons
3) What biases did you encounter?
BREAK
20 Minutes
Arguments
Made of 1 or more claims where a conclusion is supported by a premise
Claims
A claim is a statement that is either true or false.

A claim cannot be a question, command, proposal or suggestion
James is a bachelor.
Practice - As a class
Name a goal of higher education and why that is important

Do you accept this definition of education?

Why or why not?




Group Practice
Go to procon.org

Find the Higher Education page.

Use the CT Process.

Make a Standard Form argument
to answer why college was the right choice.

Indicator Terms
Provide clues to the type of claim and type of argument.

1) Premise or Conclusion

2) How do the Premises work together to support conclusion?
Claims are both parts, conclusion and premise, of an argument
Conclusion and Premise Indicators
Premise Indicators:

since
because
for the reason that assuming
suppose
as indicated by
is implied by
given that
in view of the fact that for
granted that
one cannot doubt that
Standard Form
Conclusion Indicators

therefore, consequently, thus...
this means so
it follows that shows that
implies that
proves that
leads me to believe that hence
in conclusion
for this reason accordingly
means that
we can infer that
as a result
A clear way of presenting a common language argument as a set of premises that support their conclusion
James is not married.
James is a male.
Example of Standard Form
In-Class Assignment #3
Counterexamples & Amendments

Think up a counter example that meets the first two premises, but where the conclusion is false.

Add as many premises as you need to guarantee the conclusion is true.
Basic CT Process
Issue - Bachelor or not

Data Gathering - Common knowledge of "bachelor"

Principle of Action - Only believe what is true, Be as clear as possible, etc

Check for Consistency - Are there any counter examples?

Conclusion and Reason - Amend the argument
Which of the following passages contain an argument in our technical sense of that word? (a conclusion supported by at least one premise)



You are talking to a friend after class and on your way out you see a thumbdrive on the lectern. You plug it into your computer and find that it has all of the questions and answers to the homework and quizzes in this class. What do you do?
In-Class Assignment #2
Answer, premise or conclusion:

1. therefore beer is better than wine
2. given that gravity is a constant
3. suppose that everyone was a vegetarian
4. that means that koalas are the cutest animal
5. implies that the Giants are a dynasty
6. is implied by the finite lifespan of the sun

Groups of 3
Come up with premises needed to support conclusions, or conclusions that follow the premises.

Be sure to use indicator terms!
James is a bachelor.
James is not married.
James is a male.
James is a bachelor.
James is not married.
James is a male.
Biases
Our gathering, and assessment, of data is influenced by cognitive processes, social conditioning, personality, past experiences, values, etc.

Accepting/Rejecting Claims
- confirmation bias
- bandwagon effect
Estimating Probabilities
- Gambler's fallacy
- Ostrich Effect
- condoms
- the Big Short
Risk Assessment
- Availability hueristic
- relying too much on information easily accessible to them (experience, trusted source, etc.)
- Recency
- relying too much on the most recent information
Trait Attribution
- Halo Effect
- LFA
- Group Attribution Error (Stereotyping)
- Ad Hominen
- Selective Assessment
- the other team always commits more fouls
Practice - Groups

Use the CT Process to evaluate an issue.
Identify your Principle of Action, support why that is the most applicable one, and identify any biases that influence the decision.
A) I don't like philosophy because thinking is hard.

B) The MLK Jr holiday was a week ago and I went to his memorial in SF with my wife and daughter.

C) You better get this question correct or you will be behind on points already!
John Alleman, the fifty-two year old unofficial spokesman for the restaurant Heart Attack Grill, died of a heart attack in February 2013. A regular of the restaurant since it opened in October 2011, he genuinely enjoyed the food and advocated for the restaurant even though he was never on the payroll. Alleman reportedly ate at the restaurant nearly every day, despite owner "Doctor Jon" Basso's warnings that Triple Bypass Burgers really weren't everyday food. In fact, in February 2012, a man in his forties went into cardiac arrest while trying to finish a Triple Bypass Burger, and was wheeled out to an ambulance.

The Heart Attack Grill’s slogan is "a burger to die for." It gives free meals to people who weigh more than 350 pounds, and has a warning sign that reads "Caution: This establishment is bad for your health," according to the Associated Press (AP).

Basso is cited as saying that Alleman’s death was a wake-up call of sorts, but said that it would not stop him from selling the calorie-laden burgers. One advantage of his establishment, according to Basso, is that people can feel comfortable at the grill and not worry about being judged because of their unhealthy menu choices. For his part, Basso argues that people are free to buy or not buy the food. In an interview with reporter Betty Liu, he stated “The end result of our eating habits is all around us. It’s an obesity epidemic that is killing the world. Do I want others to die at my restaurant? No. Actually I want to wake up one morning and open the door and have no one ever come in again, because maybe the world would have learned the truth. Now, I make good money joking about how bad my food is. But at least I’m honest.”

After the first incident, the AP reports, officials for the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, a Washington DC based group, sent a letter to the Heart Attack Grill's owner asking him to "declare moral bankruptcy" and close the restaurant. Advocates of the Heart Attack Grill’s right to operate and sell whatever food they like disagree, citing Basso’s honesty about how bad the food is for one’s health, the clearly labeled caloric content of the food posted where it is easy to see, and warning signs at the entrance of the restaurant.
Exercise: put our example arguments into standard form.
Counterexamples
- an important tool of critical thinking used to test the truth arguments and claims

- Think of scenarios where the premises are true, but the conclusion is not.

- Think of a scenario where both the premises and conclusion are true, but it leads to an undesirable or impossible conclusion
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