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APUSH Presidents Project

Presidents Project
by

Rosa Hernandez

on 9 January 2013

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Transcript of APUSH Presidents Project

APUSH
Presidents Timeline By: Briana Uribe, Dehryen Williams, and Rosa Hernandez American Identity
& Culture Economic Transformations
& Globalization Environment Politics
& Citizenship Slavery & its legacies
in North America War & Diplomacy American Identity
& Culture Economic Transformations
& Globalization Environment Politics
& Citizenship Slavery & its legacies
in North America War & Diplomacy American Identity
& Culture Economic Transformations
& Globalization Environment Politics
& Citizenship Slavery & its legacies
in North America War & Diplomacy American Identity
& Culture Economic Transformations
& Globalization Environment Politics
& Citizenship Slavery & its legacies
in North America War & Diplomacy American Identity
& Culture Economic Transformations
& Globalization Environment Politics
& Citizenship Slavery & its legacies
in North America War & Diplomacy American Identity
& Culture Economic Transformations
& Globalization Environment Politics
& Citizenship Slavery & its legacies
in North America War & Diplomacy American Identity
& Culture Economic Transformations
& Globalization Environment Politics
& Citizenship Slavery & its legacies
in North America War & Diplomacy American Identity
& Culture Economic Transformations
& Globalization Environment Politics
& Citizenship Slavery & its legacies
in North America War & Diplomacy American Identity
& Culture Economic Transformations
& Globalization Environment Politics
& Citizenship Slavery & its legacies
in North America War & Diplomacy American Identity
& Culture Economic Transformations
& Globalization Environment Politics
& Citizenship Slavery & its legacies
in North America War & Diplomacy American Identity
& Culture Economic Transformations
& Globalization Environment Politics
& Citizenship Slavery & its legacies
in North America War & Diplomacy American Identity
& Culture Economic Transformations
& Globalization Environment Politics
& Citizenship Slavery & its legacies
in North America War & Diplomacy American Identity
& Culture Economic Transformations
& Globalization Environment Politics
& Citizenship Slavery & its legacies
in North America War & Diplomacy American Identity
& Culture Economic Transformations
& Globalization Environment Politics
& Citizenship Slavery & its legacies
in North America War & Diplomacy American Identity
& Culture Economic Transformations
& Globalization Environment Politics
& Citizenship Slavery & its legacies
in North America War & Diplomacy American Identity
& Culture Economic Transformations
& Globalization Environment Politics
& Citizenship Slavery & its legacies
in North America War & Diplomacy American Identity
& Culture Economic Transformations
& Globalization Environment Politics
& Citizenship Slavery & its legacies
in North America War & Diplomacy American Identity
& Culture Economic Transformations
& Globalization Environment Politics
& Citizenship Slavery & its legacies
in North America War & Diplomacy 13. Millard Fillmore 14. Franklin Pierce 15. James Buchanan 16. Abraham Lincoln 17. Andrew Johnson 18. Ulysses S. Grant Millard Fillmore was president during a tough time in American history. The battle for slavery was at its fullest- pro-abolitionists desperately seeking support from all around the states to help bring freedom to slaves while the anti-abolitionists attempted again and again to reinforce the subjection of the Africans in the states, practicing no mercy. Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote a book in the year of 1852 named Uncle Tom’s Cabin. The book was a story about a Southern slave named Tom and his evil master. Although Stowe hesitated to write her name as the author, and did not until after the book was published, she left nothing behind as she spilled about the cruelties and unfortunate events slaves had to go through. This book opened people’s eyes about slavery and its evil, and therefore had some anti-abolitionists change their position on slavery, and abolitionists more certain of the need to abolish slavery. Fillmore’s political party, the Whigs, really influenced his support for the economic expansion in the United States. The territorial expansion of the United States, such as after the Mexican War where they gained California, New Mexico, and Texas, would develop the economy and would receive the encouragement from all around the nation. Gold found in California would also be the attraction to all kinds of people, all around the world. California then admitted to the Union, as a free state. Trade was also a big way to connect with others around the world. The south’s cotton allowed the north to manufacture items and eventually trade with others, and maintain the United States’ economy as independent as possible. Having an equal ratio of free and slave states was very difficult to maintain while fulfilling Manifest Destiny. President Fillmore set up many compromises, in hopes of rekindling the damage done by slavery. After the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the Mexican War and officially gave the US California, New Mexico, and Texas, it seemed like there was an even greater internal war going on. In an effort to stop the fighting, the Compromise of 1850 was created. This compromise admitted California as a free state, and left the other territories, New Mexico and Utah, open to slavery through popular sovereignty. The Southerners really looked down on the idea of this compromise, for they believed that the extra land would be a great opportunity to expand their agricultural economy; of course, with the help of slaves. Millard Fillmore was president while a lot was going on with slavery. The Compromise of 1850 was created by Henry Clay, and was 5 bills in one. One of the five was Fugitive Slave Act. The Fugitive Slave Act stated that all runaway slaves must be returned to their masters in the south, if captured in the north. This act was to equal out having California as a free state. It created a relief for the south because they basically never could lose what was theirs. Slaves were their master’s property, and no matter what, they would be able to get them back. Slave trade was also banned in Washington DC; this did not allow people to enter at slaves, however, it didn’t abolish the slavery that was already in the area. The Compromise of 1850, as mentioned earlier, included the territories of New Mexico and Utah in the hands of popular sovereignty to decide whether or not they would be slave states. Popular sovereignty leaves it to the settlers in the territory to make such decisions through popular vote. By using popular sovereignty, a slave or free state was not set in stone. The Whig Party also suffered separation due to decisions Millard Fillmore had made on the controversial topic. Trying to please everyone was difficult, impossible. The Whigs divided into Northern Whigs and Southern Whigs, and even joined different parties. Most of the Southern Whigs ended up joining the Democratic Party, while most of the Northern Whigs ended up joining either the Republican Party or the Know-Nothing Party. Such a division was irreparable, and eventually led to the extinction of the Whig Party. To prevent the Civil War from happening, Fillmore created the Compromise of 1850. He firmly believed that these acts\laws would alleviate the United States. However, it ended up taking a turn for the worse, and in some’s opinion, was what caused the Civil War. Nothing pleased both the South and the North at the same time, and such differences split the United States. The Civil War really was inevitable, especially because both sides were complete opposites. The south as well as the north were both very stubborn. To even fight within their own country, as was done in the Civil War, was taking it to the extremes on the southern part because they took slavery and fought for it; fought for what was their property instead of finding a more amicable way of solving the problem. A book that arose during Pierce’s presidency was the Impending Crisis of the South, written by Hinton R. Helper in 1857. The book wasn’t nearly as sentimental as Stowe’s; rather it had a more rational way of seeing the abolition of slavery. Helper justified the Southern’s dependent economy with slavery, and suggested abolishing slavery to become independent and far more successful, keeping in mind whites’ self interest. However, the southerners did not like this idea, and did their very best to ban the book in the South. Unfortunately for them, the anti slavery leaders did well in distributing it all around the Northern territories. Fighting to keep the slaves, southerners argued that the Bible and overall history approved slavery, and even clarified that the connection, the familial bond between a slave and its master was extraordinary. They even compared slavery to the northern workers, classifying them as “wage slaves” for working long and hard hours in the factories. Overall, all of America was seriously swayed between the controversial topics. Westward expansion stayed very important in the mind of Americans. Senator Stephen A. Douglas formulated a plan to build a railroad that would also do its share in promoting western settlement. To create a transcontinental railroad that would make its way directly through the US, Douglas desperately needed southern consent. To make such an approval possible, the senator introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854). This bill intended to divide Kansas into two territories-Kansas and Nebraska. Slavery would be determined upon popular sovereignty; however, it was still an opportunity for the southerners to gain slave territories north of the 36’30 line, regardless of the Missouri Compromise. The railroad itself would be crucial to successfully trade within the United States. The making of slave states would also produce more amounts of cotton which would then help the manufacturing area. Pierce was a full supporter of westward expansion, as were the vast majority of Americans. His most profound goal was accomplishing Manifest Destiny. The larger the United States, the stronger it would also become. More territory would be the equivalent of a far more successful country because it would help the residents and ultimately, all would gain more money from such an expansion. The Gadsden Purchase was a large purchase made by the US through President Franklin Pierce. The purchase was of a region that is now known as Arizona and a piece of New Mexico, and was needed primarily to be able to formulate the long desired transcontinental railroad. The purchase was also made in hopes of reconciliation between the Mexican and US borders after The Mexican War. New political parties arose during Pierce’s presidency, most importantly, to represent different American settlers. Ethnic problems arose between Protestant Americans and immigrant Catholics. Such a complication created the Know-Nothing Party, which was anti-Catholic and anti-immigrants. Their biggest problem, or fear, was the massive amounts of immigrants that would make their way to Northern territories. The next party that was created was the Republican party, made primarily as a response to the Kansas-Nebraska Act. The party was made up of antislavery Whigs and Democrats and Free-Soilers. Generally, they sought an end to the spread of slavery, approving the use of slaves in the old southern slave states. The Election of 1856 was also an important factor during Pierce’s presidency, for it was between the Republicans, the Know-Nothings, and the Democrats, and unexpectedly, the Republicans were very strongly supported. All in all, a lot was going on politically during these years. The Kansas-Nebraska Act brought bloody consequences to the United States. Douglas, the sponsor of the bill, was hopeful, and maybe naïve, in believing that the territory status would be amicably settled by the antislavery migrants that had only recently settled in the territory of Kansas; they ultimately were a majority of the population. However, Missouri was determined to have the southern win on the territory. The unfavorable neighboring of the states only meant that the fight for the territory was not over. Free-Soilers and northern abolitionists quickly formulated the New England Emigrant Aid Company in 1855, which transported antislavery settlers to Kansas at no cost. The quarrel between the proslavery and antislavery settlers in Kansas is what lead to the territory being known as “bleeding Kansas”. The United States sought the control of Cuba, which was in the possession of the Spanish. Pierce sent diplomats Jason Mason, Pierre Soule, and James Buchanan to Ostend, Belgium where they secretly debated the topic. With such an expansion, once again, the status of the territory arose. This resulted in the Aix-la-Chapelle, where the authorities justified the seizure of Cuba as beneficial to all, and taking the territory from Spanish control was for the best. The Ostend Manifesto was then written in 1854, and declared that the United States would acquire Cuba from Spain, while anything otherwise would mean to declare war on Spain. This, however, never took action. Americans were still boiling with anger with the whole slavery topic. John Brown, for example, was a very violent abolitionist. He went to the extremes, and intended on beginning a slave uprising in Virginia. Brown’s plan was to arm Virginian slaves with the Harpers Ferry arsenal and then have them revolt. The plan, nevertheless, did not go well and instead made way for him and his followers’ persecution. The southerners, at this point, felt like this reassured them of the destruction of the South with the use of slaves. Fear was roaming in America. On a brighter not, the Blackwell sisters were breaking barriers for women, for they were one of the first women to earn a medical degree in the United States. They created the New York Infirmary for Indigent Women and Children in 1857, where they practiced nursing, surgery, and bookkeeping- things that were unreachable for women before. The Tariff of 1857 was created by Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter of Virginia to dramatically reduce tax in the United States, with the intention of distributing a budget surplus. Southerners mainly supported this bill because it was they who depended on export. Unfortunately, the Panic of 1857 followed almost immediately, caused by the decline of American goods in the European market. With such a crisis, American investors struggled through a loss of money. The banks in America grew very picky with giving out loans in fear of the poor ability to pay back the money. This time of depression lead to high unemployment rates in the North, giving the South a sense of superiority in this economic crisis. The Tariff of 1857 was created by Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter of Virginia to dramatically reduce tax in the United States, with the intention of distributing a budget surplus. Southerners mainly supported this bill because it was they who depended on export. Unfortunately, the Panic of 1857 followed almost immediately, caused by the decline of American goods in the European market. With such a crisis, American investors struggled through a loss of money. The banks in America grew very picky with giving out loans in fear of the poor ability to pay back the money. This time of depression lead to high unemployment rates in the North, giving the South a sense of superiority in this economic crisis. The southern secession was a hot topic during Buchanan’s term. Buchanan did little to nothing to prevent the disintegration of the United States. He, instead, only stated, through a message to Congress, that he believed secession was illegal and that the federal government had no right to stop the states from seceding. Noticeable through the resignations of a few members of his own cabinet, people were displeased about what Buchanan was doing to keep the South from secession, which was basically nothing. The state of Virginia feared for their state’s outcome after warjgh, and ended up proposing the Peace Convention in Washington, where the states’ compromises and proposals were delivered to Congress. Unfortunately, Congress did not agree with the proposals and the whole convention proved to be pointless. The Election of 1860 was filled with turmoil. The Southern Democrats sought a far larger, unrestricted amplification of slavery with the hopes of Cuba as another slavery ridden territory; with this in mind, they nominated Stephen Douglas. The Republican Party desired the end of slavery and internal improvements among other accomplishments, and to complete this, elected Abraham Lincoln as their representative. However, secessionists cautioned the departure of the Union if Lincoln was elected president. The Constitutional Union party was a new political party made up of Know-Nothings, former Whigs, and moderate Democrats. This new party promised an enforcement of the Constitution and, most importantly, sustaining the Union. A lot that was happening with slavery was basically mentioned earlier. However, one of the most important moments for slavery happened in 1857. This event was the Dred Scott vs. Sanford case. Dred Scott was a slave in Missouri, but was taken to the free state of Wisconsin for two full years. Scott argued that the time that he spent on free soil technically classified him as being overall a free man. The problem was taken to the Supreme Court, and into the hands of Chief Justice Roger Taney. Following through with his southern precedent, the Court made two huge decisions: 1) African Americans had no right to sue in a federal court because they were excluded from the Constitution; 2) Congress had no power to constrict people from their property, slaves being considered as White man’s property. The southern Democrats were relieved with the decision, but the northern Democrats found it completely unjust and sensed a slave power conspiracy- a suspicion that lead to a Republican vote instead. The Utah War’s name might be a tad misleading, in the sense that there were very few casualties, there were really no battles, and all was resolved through negotiation. It was a quarrel between the Mormons and the United States. The Mormons in Utah grew worrisome about obtaining unfortunate events because of their unique beliefs and customs. Among these fears were the loss of property rights and the ushering away of their land. Buchanan feared a false Mormon rebellion in Utah, and sent forces on the Utah Expedition to prevent any bloodshed. The Mormons, however, took this as a sign to prepare themselves for what they thought would be war. There ended up being little to no violence, and all was settled through an agreement to abide by US laws. Lincoln’s presidency brought out two completely opposite identities: the Confederate Identity and the Union Identity. Both sides carried out a lot of self interest from their decisions. The Confederates were financially driven; fighting for a goal they believed would have terrible consequences if not reached. Their agricultural economy base was what they used to excuse the slavery use. After many attempts, many different arguments to make a successful change in the South’s way of life, it proved to be no use. The region was ultimately stuck with the traditional US culture-that of which, included slaves. On the other hand, people in the Union began to slowly accept, although not fully, the diversity in the United States. Their position consisted of the protection of natural rights for all humans. The North had a greater economic advantage than that of the South, dating back to the beginning of the Civil War, and following through to the end. For one, the Union controlled over 85% of the factories and manufactured goods from all over the United States. They also had control of over 70% of the railroads in the US, giving them superiority in transportation that proved to be handy during the Civil War to transport materials and food. Not only did they have all of that, but the control of the greater part of the farmlands, leaving them with a vast amount of food in their possession. All of this control put them in a good position, as opposed to the South, whom had only the leftovers. The farm land that was left in the South’s possession was only for raw materials, like cotton, which was only used for profit. The Union side easily exceeded all that the Confederates could economically accomplish. The Homestead Act of 1862 was passed with Abraham Lincoln as president. This was a federal law that allowed an applicant proprietorship of land at barely any cost. Normally, the land consisted of about 160 acres and was settled in between certain boundaries. This was initially done as a sort of “Free Soil” advantage. It would reflect, and satisfy, the Northerners who sought individual farmers to posses self ownership of the farms rather than use the free labor that the Southerners exercised by using slaves. By operating on their own, there would be more equality in ownership throughout the United States. Not having slaves as labor would open up the doors for the jobless migrants and immigrants. The Emancipation Proclamation clarified a lot in the Civil War in terms of goals and political action. It was passed in 1863, and it more literally set free the slaves that were in states part of the rebellion, but ordered that all slaves be treated as free no matter what the circumstance. The Unions followed alongside it, for it declared the elimination of slavery as its goal. The Emancipation Proclamation also allowed African Americans to join the army. The guarantee of citizenship for African Americans after joining the army was another clever idea. The fact that African Americans were given this right was what gave the Union a massive army. Lastly, the Confederate States of America followed Lincoln’s inauguration, which was also an important political event. During Lincoln’s presidency, there were adjustments to the United States Constitution. The Thirteenth Amendment, passed in 1865, outlawed slavery and any other unwilling servitude. It was one of the three “Reconstruction Amendments” passed after the Civil War. This amendment was used to clarify the abolishment of slavery through the Constitution. The Fourteenth Amendment was meant to shine light on the Bill of Rights for everyone. Finally, the Fifteenth Amendment prohibited the denial of voting rights based off of race. These amendments were very important in showing the progress that was done after the Civil War. Not only did it show that the Civil War, was in fact, not in vain, but also began the diversity of the United States that would carry on for years. The Civil War was a grand battle. The Southern states seceded right after Lincoln’s inauguration as a cry for help. Although Lincoln proposed that the only reason for the war was to reunite the different groups, his neutrality wore off by the end of the war. The Union, however, wanted the abolishment of slavery, and the Confederates wanted to do all in their power to keep them. Historians say there were different reasons for the Civil War, but honestly, it was their irreconcilable differences on the topic of slavery. Not only was it about then and there, but they also looked for ways that African Americans would fit into American society. The Union ended up being victorious because, unlike the Confederacy, they had the supplies and the support for a war of that size. Abraham Lincoln was unfortunately assassinated. After this, the vice president Johnson presumed the role as president. Reconstructing the United States was no longer left in the hands of Abraham Lincoln, and instead, placed into Andrew Johnson’s. American people left the Civil War and into the devastating aftermath. The need to rebuild up what was once there was difficult. Now that slavery was less of a problem, the real issue was the treatment of the African Americans now that they were emancipated, and the punishment for those states that participated in the secession. The Fourteenth Amendment, as mentioned before, was passed in 1868. The amendment not only declared all those born in the US official citizens and under the branch of equal protection, but it also disqualified ex-Confederate leaders from being any sort of state or federal officials. The amendment also made its way in condemning a state if it, in any way, kept someone eligible from voting. Lastly, the amendment chose not to acknowledge the Confederacy’s debts. The Civil War left the Confederate states in a poor state, therefore by having the Union repudiate the debts, it left them in an OK state. At this point in time, the United States was working on repairing all that it once was. The President’s duty was to bring the Union and Confederate states together again. This Reconstruction, as it was known, did not last all it was supposed to last. The reentering in the Union was supposed to provide for all of that punishment that Lincoln and the rest of the Union sought for after their unfair decision to split. Andrew Johnson, however, played easily, allowing the Confederate states to rejoin the Union after only the span of 8 months. By this time, the United States was back to what it had started, geographically speaking. Lincoln chose Johnson as a successor because he was a Southern representative. Lincoln believed this was the best choice to have common grounds with the once-rebelling Southerners, and so that they were comfortable in returning back into the Union. However, Johnson vetoed two bills that were crucial in the eyes of the Republicans. The first bill was meant to increase the protection and assistance for the now free African Americans and homeless whites. The second bill was meant to give the African Americans a complete status of citizenship, including equal rights and all. These vetoes showed how he was not looking forward to an easy transition from slavery to freedom-something that Republicans frowned upon. The Civil War did not open the pathway to equality for the slaves, unfortunately. President Johnson ended up passing the Black Codes, basically freeing the slaves but did nothing more for them. These laws ended up only limiting African American’s civil rights. The Black Codes reaffirmed African American’s inferiority, reflecting the unwillingness of most people to accept them as equals in society. The codes refrained African Americans from purchasing or renting lands or even borrowing money. They were also not allowed to testify against whites in court. The Civil Rights Act was passed in 1866 to protect the African Americans from these unfair codes. Although slaves endured war to achieve their freedom, they were still bombarded by their lack of rights and reminders of their inferiority. The Reconstruction Acts were passed in 1867. The South was under military conflict, a step taken through these acts. The Confederate states were each under Union’s control. The acts required more to achieve readmission into the Union. They were supposed to make it difficult for the Confederate states that had seceded to rejoin the Union. To rejoin, the ex-Confederate state had to agree to follow the Fourteenth Amendment, which guaranteed that all adult males were allowed to vote-even slaves. When Ulysses S. Grant arrived into office, America was still undergoing the Reconstruction period. The Amnesty Act of 1872 was ratified by Congress. The Act removed all restrictions from the secessionists who rebelled-all but the leaders. This Act was very significant because it would give a bonus vote for the Democratic Party, whom would still not let go of their loss of slaves. Setting the ex-confederate free would then allow them to actually take part in the actual government as Democrat supporters. After the war, many Northerners, like investors, migrated south, because they were interested in setting up new businesses. Even some missionaries made their way south to express humanitarian goals. African Americans also spent this time adjusting to freedom. All in all, there was a lot of change and a lot of getting used to that was taking place in America. The postwar years highlighted corruption from all over. Politically, there were two Senators, Roscoe Conklin of New York and James Blaine of Maine, whom over and over again spoiled their supporters. Their supporters would receive government favors and jobs-things that were very crucial at the time. James Fisk and Jay Gould, both Wall Street financiers, ended up using Grant’s brother in law to scheme for gold. They ended up getting caught, but they already had made a huge profit. There was also a Credit Mobilier affair. Stock was given to high ranking members of Congress so that profits being made while creating the transcontinental road would be unquestionable. The Whiskey Ring Case consisted of federal revenue agents schemed with the alcohol industry to cheat the government off of taxes in order to gain millions of dollars for themselves. William Tweed was known as the “boss” of the local Democratic Party, but was later exposed to the public along with his other fraud-worthy friends through a cartoon on The New York Times. Tweed and his accomplices were known as the Tweed Ring, and together, stole more than 200 million dollars from taxpayers in New York. It wasn’t until 1871 that he was imprisoned. President Grant was not ever known for corruption, but his loyalty towards men of that sort that surrounded him blemished the view Americans had of him. President Grant sympathized over the Native Americans and the African Americans. Grant believed that the Native Americans were harmless, and would have remained this way, had it not been for the mass of Whites eager to change their civilization. In his inauguration, Grant established his wanting to help and aid the Indians. This, however, did not put him in good terms with those who still wanted to expand westward. Towards the African Americans, he attempted to keep them from pain. The Annexation of Santo Domingo was a treaty President Grant attempted to pass in 1869. President Grant’s wishful thinking made him believe that offering this as a place of protection for the African Americans, whom were going through a rough time, would also help end slavery in Brazil. All this, he believed, would help the US economy. The treaty turned out to be a failure, for there was far too much misunderstanding between Congress and the President’s administration. Congress ended up passing the Fifteenth Amendment in 1869, after the Thirteenth and Fourteenth. The amendment declared any citizens suffrage rights to be followed through with, no matter the race or color. The Amendment ended up helping African Americans reinforce their freedom and their rights, such as the right to vote. Congress, too, passed the Civil Rights Act of 1875. This act, also known as the Enforcement Act, assured African Americans equal consideration in any public accommodations and banned the prohibition from jury service. Laws like these popped out during President Grant’s term, determining the fact that he cared for the African Americans and sought protection for them. It was he who also sent the innocent African Americans military protection from the KKK, also known as the Ku Klux Klan. It was the action that was taken on events like these to prevent future violence in the United States. This period was dedicated to the African Americans with their new-sought freedom. Most importantly, it was the Southern African Americans who had to exercise their new emancipation and step into the challenge of steady economics as well as their new citizenship. It was during this time period that African Americans wanted to prove one thing and one thing only: their independence. Reuniting families, becoming literate, migrating through the US were some of the things that were at the top of their list. They even went on creating their own churches. The yearning for education and schooling was what got them to create independent schools so that the children would learn, as well as the adults in college. Although emancipation did cause good in the hearts of many African Americans, their tormenting past would once again haunt them with the creation of the Ku Klux Klan. An ex-Confederate leader, Nathaniel Bedford Forrest took the time in the year of 1867 to create a group mainly composed of Southern whites who would ambush the free African Americans, causing them fear. The Force Act of 1870 and 1871 were created to protect citizen’s rights in the South, to the extent of giving federal officials the power to by any means stop the violence. The Alabama territory was still negotiable, and therefore needed the Treaty of Washington in 1871 to settle it. The treaty was between the US and Britain, and it was used to settle whether or not Alabama was part of the United States claim or of Britain’s. In the end, the treaty was used to settle the miniscule misunderstanding, and ended up not weakening their alliance. President Grant also sought to have Haiti under US control. Haiti would be used as a territory for free men to make something out of Haiti’s abundant natural resources. Grant really wanted to annex Haiti, and ended up sending Orville E. Babcock to further negotiate the land. Unfortunately, Senator Charles Sumner refused such an annexation in fear of a lacking in labor back in the South. 1. George Washington 2. John Adams 3. Thomas Jefferson 4. James Madison 5. James Monroe 6. John Quincy Adams 7. Andrew Jackson 8. Martin Van Buren 9. William Henry Harrison 10. John Tyler 11. James K. Polk 12. Zachary Taylor Washington's farewell address and presidency had a major impact on the culture of American citizens and the way they viewed life in America; it served a basis and model for future presidents. Even though Washington retired after his second term, he managed to impact the ideals of citizens by instilling the vision of a strong, united, and bright American country. At the time of Washington's presidency, the French Revolution was about to ignite in France. Americans developed different opinions about how America should deal with the issue and whether they agreed with what was taking place in Europe. Some Americans didn't like Robespierre because they felt that he was trying to take over the French government by killing 14000 citizens and the king in a period known as the Reign of Terror. Others appreciated it because it helped revamp the French government. American culture became more united socially over the course of Washington's presidency. Also, during this time period, the idea of Republican Motherhood arose in America. Republican Motherhood was the idea that the mothers in the families should instill the idea of Republicanism in the new generations to come. In instilling this belief to the children, it would help them grow more nationalistic and become more bonded politically. During Washington's presidency, he appointed Alexander Hamilton who was chosen to become the treasurer and created the famous Hamilton Plan as a solution to America's economic debt. The plan called for a national bank and a national debt. Hamilton also stressed the importance of getting involved in foreign affairs to help the economy. Not only would this improve economic relations between America and Europe, potential military alliances could be formed and thus America's military would become stronger. Over time this would improve America's economy through profit, loans, and commerce. This plan was greatly rejected by Thomas Jefferson because he believed that a national bank was unconstitutional. Although Jefferson expressed his opinions to Washington, Hamilton was able to constitutionally justify his plan. Jefferson was an Anti- Federalist and Hamilton was a Federalist. In 1789, Alexander Hamilton created a tariff to increase the tax on the importation of foreign goods. This helpedAmerica’s economy profit from all trade with Europe and put a lot of focus on the industrial aspect of the economy. In 1793, Eli Whitney, a pioneer from Massachusetts created the cotton gin which revolutionized America’s economy in the South for centuries to come by creating a huge focus on the importance of cotton. During the start of Washington's first term as president, the Articles of Confederation were coming to a close. One of their main goals was to establish new states, which they succeeded. With the enactment of the Northwest Ordinance, new states were created and the boundaries of the Northwestern territories were expanded. Citizens were happy and approved of these new ordinances. These initiatives gave them more land to settle on and it no longer placed territorial restrictions on certain areas like the British had done with the Proclamation of 1763. With the area of America growing steadily, new states had to be established and governments had to ensure the protection and solidity of the newly acquired area. In 1791 Vermont was annexed as a state of the union, in 1792 Kentucky soon followed and entered the Union and in 1796 Tennessee became the 16th state of the United States. In 1795 Thomas Pinckney negotiated a treaty with Spain known as the Treaty of San Lorenzo. This treaty allowed America to gain access the area now known as Mississippi and Alabama. When George Washington became president, he created a cabinet of trusted men that would help and advise him throughout his presidency. Thomas Jefferson served as his secretary of state, Alexander Hamilton was the nations treasurer, his secretary of defense was Henry Knox and his attorney general was Edmund Randolph. At this period in time, the Supreme Court was growing rapidly and with the Judiciary Act of 1789 they possessed all judicial power in the United States. Political disputes between the Federalists, led by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, supported the ratification of the constitution. Anti-Federalists led by Thomas Jefferson did not. Jefferson was a strict believer in the Declaration of Independence and he believed that the constitution needed a Bill of Rights that protected the basic rights of all citizens. In 1791, The Bill of Rights had been created and was used to protect American rights and property. The Bill of Rights was the first 10 amendments of the constitution and was significant at the time of Washington's rule because they had settled tensions between the Anti-Federalists and the Federalists. From the start of Washington's presidency, slaves were seen as 3/5ths of a person, alsoknown as the 3/5ths compromise. This compromise had been created for tax purposes and to distinguish how many representatives were allowed to send to the House or Representatives. Since slaves did not have the right to vote, their slave holders took their votes in the Electoral College. Many states disagreed on this compromise because they did not want slaves to have a say so at all in the decisions made politically. But many states agreed because they saw this as a compromise to settle disputes with slaves and free blacks. The white slave owners gained control over which the slaves voted for so it gave them more power in political decisions. During George Washington's presidency, he issued the Proclamation of Neutrality. This proclamation stated that Americans would not get involved in the French Revolution. In doing this, he saved America much economic and social stress because they had just gotten out of the war with the British and they were trying to set up a basis for a strong American government. At one point, Britain seized 250 American ships headed towards France. To ease tensions with the British, Washington sent John Jay to England to compromise. As a result, Jay returned with a treaty known as Jay's Treaty. The provisions of this treaty included the American promise to pay for The British war debts suffered from their loss in the American Revolution. The treaty also stated that the British would move their military from the Northwest and stop aid to the Indians. In 1794, a group of rebels attacked a tax collector in anger over the increase of tax on whiskey. The number of supporters for this rebellion grew rapidly but Washington sent troops to match the rebels and soon the rebellion was crushed. Life in America was tough for its citizens during Adams’ presidency. Although the Constitution had just been passed and the Bill of Right guaranteed citizens certain rights, America looked to be on the right track socially and nationalism started to grow. In addition, the alien and sedition acts denied citizens their rights and caused dismay to the families that weren’t citizens. People in Virginia and Kentucky were so outraged at these acts and viewed them as unconstitutional. To meet the needs and complaints of these states, James Madison and Thomas Jefferson created the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions. These resolutions allowed these two states to deem any law within their borders as unconstitutional or not. This eased America tensions towards the government. In 1799 a leader of the Iroquois Confederacy Handsome Lake made a series of speeches to his people advocating the practice of the Haudenosaunee people. He gained so much support amongst the people he talked to that they created a book called the “Book of Handsome Lake”. In 1799 an American writer named Charles Brockden Brown wrote a famous novel named Edgar Huntly. This novel depicts Brown’s view of human nature at the time and became popular among Americans. Economically, relations between the US and France were strained for the duration of the Quasi-War. As a result, the government imposed heavy taxes on its citizens to fill the void.Tensions economically were also strained with France after the XYZ Affair. Military enforcement became strong and was the reason for this increase in tax. For the 2 years period when the United States and France were not on good terms, the US had to become more economically independent. The South found its dependency on the land with production and trade of cotton. The North started to become more industrial with the help of Samuel Slater and
the factory system. In 1798 he created the Samuel Slater & Company, which made its way throughout New England and was very successful. Relations with Britain were fine after Jay’s treaty was signed. In fact, after the treaties of neutrality had been signed with both France and Britain the war ended and economic relations with Europe became neutral. Adams was inaugurated as the 2nd president of the United States in Philadelphia, the nations capital at the time. In 1795 the Spanish seceded the Mississippi territory to the US, which
added not only environmental prosperity to the US, it also brought potential economic prosperity. In 1798 Congress makes the territory official and it becomes a part of the US. The
natural resources that could be extracted from the Mississippi river and nearby territory were used to fuel trade internationally. Americans could now migrate south and populate this newly acquired territory. In May of 1800, Congress passed an act that divided the Northwest Territory
into a western and eastern section. The western section was named the Indiana territory, and eastern part remained the Northwest Territory. This new division of territory took place near the Ohio and Kentucky rivers. With the addition of the Mississippi and Indiana territory, the US was beginning to grow rapidly. Americans who inhabited these new territories were able to collect land and begin new livelihoods. The government was now exposed to the Mississippi River, which would bring a lot of economic gain to America in the future. Americans were critical of Adams’ and his presidency after the XYZ affair with France. The XYZ Affair was a scandal where 3 French diplomats wanted to be bribed in order to begin talks of political peace with America. They were so critical of his ideals that in 1798 he created the Alien and Sedition Acts. The Sedition acts of 1798 prevented anyone from talking harshly about Adams and the government. The Alien acts gave the government power to accuse anyone of not being an American citizen, disrupting American peace and deport them from America. These acts caused a lot of speculation and hatred towards Adams because they disrupted peace more then they helped preserve it. They also took away freedoms of the American citizens like their freedom of speech and freedom of press guaranteed to them in the Constitution. Americans questioned whether Adams’ was fit to govern them and lead their nation because of these acts. In 1798 Adams also enacted the Naturalization Act, this act increased the required number of years an alien or immigrant had to reside in America before they were granted citizenship. This angered many immigrants in the fact that they had come to America and worked hard for many years and now had to wait a longer period of time before they could enjoy the rights of American citizens. American’s opposed these laws so much that it was the major reason for the downfall of the Federalists and the election of Thomas Jefferson in 1800. In 1801 Adams appointed Midnight Judges to help him decide legal cases. These so called judges were unconstitutional and would bring about much controversy in the following year. During Adams’ presidency, slavery expanded in the United States. With the patent of the
cotton gin, by Eli Whitney, and the popularity it gained in the South, slavery was about to
become a very crucial aspect of life in the United States for decades to come. Adams personally
did not see slavery as a necessity and did not really favor it. Adams and his wife Abigail hired
free white men to farm their land and keep after their house. Adams being from New England
never really saw the need to have slaves. Growing up in the South played a huge role in his view
of slavery as president. The South made their case to Adams in the Philadelphia convention.
There, delegates created fugitive slave laws that made it against the law to aid runaway slaves. Adams was faced with many difficult decisions involving war during his presidency. In 1797 France began attacking American ships because the Americans signed Jay’s Treaty with Britain declaring neutrality between them. France and America had been allies ever since the American Revolution in1776, as a result of aiding the US against Britain. Adams now faced a difficult decision, he knew that the United States was in no position to go to war and that if they did, it would hinder their growth economically and politically. In 1798 the war between France and America became known as the Quasi-War. This war was strictly naval and lasted from 1798 to 1800 with no clear victor. In February of 1799 president Adams sent a US diplomat to France to create a treaty that would end the war by the name of William Vans Murray. After months of negotiation, and much anger expressed towards Adams, a treaty was agreed upon with France. Adams was able escape war without damaging the US’ economy and even though he received much criticism because of his actions to pull out of the war quickly, it was one of his most successful military decisions as president. American culture during this time grew rapidly before and during Jefferson’s presidency. With the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776, nationalism in America grew quickly. Having certain unalienable rights like freedom of speech and press as a citizen made people proud to call themselves American. Sectionalism also grew during this time period with the growth of manufacturing and commerce in the north and the increased necessity for slavery in the south. There was an increase in the number of slaves in America during this time period; with the growth of plantations in the south, plantation owners needed a realizable and cheap source of labor and found slaves to meet this need. Freed slaves developed many congregations to overthrow their white masters at church on Sundays, this resulted in Virginia passing a law that prevented Negroes from congregating without white supervision. In the newly acquired Louisiana territory, all free people black and white would enjoy the rights of citizens. Connections amongst the people were not only strained by the social status and rank that the whites held over the blacks, but politically with the rise of the Democratic-Republican Party. Due to Jefferson’s strict interpretation of the constitution and views on preserving the agrarian lifestyle, people who agreed with these views were known as Jeffersonian. During this time period America was in great need of international economic
assistance. However, to acquire this economic prosperity, freedom of trade was required. Even so, due to the fact that Jefferson enacted the Embargo of 1807, the US was cut off from foreign trade with the rest of Europe and America’s economy suffered greatly because of the absence of European aid. Production from manufacturing factories suffered in the North due to the absence of foreign textiles and farms and agricultural plantations suffered in the South because they were no longer able to trade crops overseas in the international market. Citizens were in desperate need of an economic stimulant to prevent a future collapse. Depression was so great in America that New England states threatened to secede from the Union. Jefferson was a firm believer in preserving the agrarian and yeomen farmers, so to help the American economy he enacted the Non-Intercourse Act in 1809. This act allowed foreign trade with all European countries except Britain and France to prevent war. In addition, Macon’s Bill No. 2 was created to bargain with both Britain and France to nullify the act if they both promise to dissolve their acts against America. With this agreement in place, America’s economy avoided depression and regained strength throughout the North and the South. In 1806 a paved highway was created that stretched from the Hudson River near New York all the way to the Midwest into Indiana known as the National Road. It stimulated economic transportation between the Midwest and the North and was also a way for people migrate to new territories to set up homes and cities. At this time, in American history, the US was beginning to grow steadily. New states were beginning to be formed and westward expansion past the Appalachian Mountains was being pushed for. President Jefferson was a strict believer in the Constitution of the United States and at that time, he questioned whether a crucial purchase of land from Napoleon was within its guidelines. Jefferson weighed the benefits and drawbacks of the purchase; he believed that if he purchased the territory, it would bring not only environmental but economic growth to both the yeomen farmers who he was overly fond of and the US as a whole. So in 1803 Thomas Jefferson purchases the Louisiana territory from France for 15 million dollars in his most important act as president known as the Louisiana Purchase. This doubled the size of the US past the Mississippi and Indiana territory boundaries. To explore this vast territory Jefferson hired sent two men on an expedition to find a commercial route to Asia known as the Lewis and Clark Expedition. They found new plants, animals, experienced the different climate throughout the area, and they found it possible to reach the Pacific Ocean. In 1805, the Yazoo Land Scandal plagued Georgia and resulted in several governors from Georgia being stripped of their status and thrown in jail. From
1794 to 1803, governors from Georgia committed fraud and sold land in Mississippi to political Insiders at low prices. As a result, this case went to Supreme Court where it was decided that the contracts were binding, and the state could not take back the sales. The time period in which power shifted from the Federalists to the Democratic- Republicans is known as the “Election of 1800”. This election was unique for the fact that the number of electoral votes for each candidate, Burr and Jefferson, ended in a tie similarly to the election of 1796 between Adams and Jefferson. The 12th amendment was created to ensure that the presidential race did not end in a tie and to erase controversy over false ballots and unfair plots to steal votes from another candidate; one-vote ballot would be cast for president and the other for vice president. Jefferson won this decisive election by having the help of the supporters of Alexander Hamilton. Burr was outraged at this and saw it as a plot to take away his crucial electoral votes and held resentment with Jefferson and Hamilton for the rest of his life. During this time, Jefferson had many problems with his vice president Aaron Burr, Burr was always resentful towards Jefferson after his loss in the presidential race. In 1806, he was tried for treason for plotting to take Mexican territory from Spain and unite it with the Louisiana territory. If his cheme was successful, war with Spain could have ignited causing many problems economically, environmentally, politically, and socially for the United States. During this time period, the process of judicial review was created as a result of the famous Supreme Court case Marbury vs. Madison. Jefferson ordered Madison not to pay any of Adams’ midnight judge’s commission to try to eliminate federalist ties with the government. Marbury sued for his commissions and it was found by congress that he deserved his commissions, but the Chief of Justice John Marshall stepped in and ruled it unconstitutional and Marbury lost the case. Life as an American citizen became better over the course of Jefferson’s presidency. Laws like the 12 th amendment and judicial review not only gave people more democratic freedom by allowing them to cast their opinions for the president and vice president, but it also protected the freedoms to the people and asserted them when legal action was involved. In 1804, Jefferson had been associated to the Supreme Court, Samuel Chase, impeached. Chase switched political factions from Democratic-Republican to Federalists, and Jefferson believed that because Chase was politically impartial, it affected his decision making in the Supreme Court. Although he was later acquitted of his crime for lack of evidence, he became the first associate to the Supreme Court to be impeached. By this time, in America, slavery was a very important asset in the economy for the south. With the emergence of plantations and slave trade, the demand for a cheap source of labor increased. Slaves were treated very poorly in this time period. They lacked the right to vote,
property, and were subjected to racism throughout the territories that allowed slavery. Slavery became a heated argument in America at this time between the north and the south. The north based its economy off of textile, and commerce felt it was morally wrong for humans to be subjected to racial inferiority like blacks were. The topic of slavery gained so much attention that in 1808; Congress passed a law that prohibited slave trade in the US. The south was greatly outraged at this law because their economy would suffer a huge recession if the amount of slaves declined. In 1800, a man by the name of Gabriel Prosser and his brother recruited almost 1,000
slaves to rebel against their slave owners in Virginia. They marched the streets and became violent to the white legislatures in Richmond. However, Prosser was betrayed by one of his allies, and the rebellion came to a close. As a result, Prosser and many of his allies were lynched
and executed. In 1806 -1807, Britain and France created naval blockades on their ports. As a result, many US soldiers were captured and forced to serve in the British army, an act known as impressment. Furthermore, in 1807 a British ship, the Leopard, fired on an American ship, the Chesapeake in which 3 American sailors were killed. Many Americans were furious at this attempt for war by the British. However, Jefferson knew that war would create many problems for America so in response he created the Embargo Act of 1807. This served as a way to end impressment, stifle both British and French economies, and prevent an international war. This had a huge effect on the foreign policy of America. It canceled all economic ties with Europe and was an attempt to scare Britain into adhering to the neutral rights of the US. At the time of Jefferson’s presidency the French Revolution was taking place in France. Jefferson being a
diplomat to the French in the past, wanted to aid them in their time of recession. However, many Americans believed that in doing so America would harm its economy and create wars against, the enemies of the French and urged Jefferson to stay out of France’s affairs. During Madison’s two terms as president, nationalism in America increased. Likewise, during the course of the War of 1812, nationalism in America was both minimized and augmented. In 1814, American morale increased. Francis Scott Key created the Star-Spangled Banner. This poem showed Key’s pride to be an American and how significant of a victory it was for the US. This poem and song gained so much popularity that it became the national anthem of the United States. During the war, a group called the War hawks was created and advocated the US’ involvement in the war. They were a group of congressmen lead by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun. Also, at this time, America was starting to get an influx of immigration from Europe. German immigrants came to America to escape religious prosecution and to buy cheap land to cultivate; they tended to settle in the Midwest and New England area of the US. Irish immigrants came to America to find work and out of respect for America winning the war against the British, some Irish people fought in the War of 1812 against Britain. America’s economy was hurting from the Embargo Act enacted by Thomas Jefferson that cut off trade with Europe. To alleviate some of the stress put on the economy, Madison repealed the Embargo Act in 1809 and implemented the Non-Intercourse Act. This act allowed America to trade with all countries of Europe except for France and Britain. America’s economy took another crucial hit at the cost of the War of 1812. To improve America’s economy and make it more self-sufficient from Europe, congressman Henry Clay from Kentucky created a plan known as the American System. This new economic system proposed that the US continue the national bank; impose tariffs to fund the national debt, and internal improvements to ensure the longevity of the plan. This plan was very significant because it helped the US become more self-sufficient and it prevented them from taking such a huge hit economically whenever they fought against a European trade partner. In 1816, the national bank was rechartered which also helped America’s economy. This way Clay’s American System and national currency could continue. During this time period, Turnpikes, or toll roads were created that helped the economy.Turnpikes were blockades set up on roads that required a fee to be paid in order for access to thatarea to be allowed. During the War of 1812, a lot of American territory was used as a war-zone against the Indians and British. America fought the Indians in the Northwest Territory known as modern day Indiana; they also fought near lake Erie, which is modern day Michigan and parts of Canada. Battles with Britain stemmed from the capital in Washington D.C., to New York, to Louisiana and Florida, back up to Baltimore. During Madison’s presidency, America expanded westward. With the acquisition of the Northwest Territory and increase in immigration, millions of people migrated to the Western frontier. Not only was the land made cheap by congress to persuade people to purchase it, it was a way to ensure American control in that area. In 1814, after the Battle of New Orleans was won by America, Louisiana was annexed by the Union and became the 18th state of the US. In 1816, a part of the Northwest Territory became annexed and is now known as Indiana. In 1817, Mississippi soon followed and gained entry as a state in America. Americans could be safely used the Mississippi river for its agricultural growth and set up houses near it to be able to consistently access it. Whigs and Anti-Federalists supported the War of 1812 while the Federalists did not. Disapproval of the war grew amongst the Federalists. During the war, they met in Connecticut and created the Hartford Convention to discuss whether the Constitution and its provisions were being assessed. During this time of stress and war , they also contemplated succession from the US, which would have been even more tragic for American morale and nationality. When the war was won for America and the Star-Spangled banner was written, citizens viewed the Federalists as negative and against the progression of America. This was a huge reason for their downfall as well, they tried to revive their efforts against the Democratic-Republicans, but their hopes were soon crushed. The US gained a lot of strength and momentum moving forward with
their victory in the War of 1812. The Treaty of Ghent ended the war and established the US as a strong and independent power in the world. It also proved that and end to civil struggles was
near and after years of fight and disagreement, citizens were starting to become proud to be an American citizen. During his presidency, President Madison had very contradicting views towards slavery. On one hand, Madison was a slaveholder and kept slaves for his whole life. Then, on the other hand, he supported the anti slavery movement and believed that slavery was bad for both the slaves and the slaveholders. Slavery at this time in America continued to spread with the growth in popularity of the cotton gin. Also, during this time, a lot of focus was paid to the rise in competition between the slave and free states in America. The North was becoming to be known as the anti-slavery region of America, while the South was growing to be a huge advocate of slavery and its growth in America. Sectionalism was beginning to grow which ended up splitting American nationalism more than it was piecing it together. During Madison’s presidency, the War of 1812 was a significant event. War broke out due to British ships capturing American vessels and forcing them to serve in the British army, also known as impressment. War Hawks were Democratic-Republicans who were angered at the British impressing US sailors. They fought to continue the war to end to stop the British from capturing American ships and sailors. During this war, America suffered various defeats from Tecumseh, the leader of the Shawnee tribe. With British aid, Tecumseh was able to defeat the Americans in the Northwest weakening their morale and damaging their economy. But Tecumseh was defeated and killed by William Harrison at Tippecanoe Creek, this significant battle severed ties between the Indians and the British. In 1814, the British damaged the US’ hope for victory greatly and raided the nations capital in Washington DC and set it on fire. But, in 1813, the US fought back and won the battle of Lake Erie behind commander Oliver Hazard Perry; this victory gave the US complete control of the Northwest Territory. Commander Andrew Jackson led the US to a huge victory in New Orleans that left the British with 2,000 casualties and forced them back to Florida where they had set up base. Finally, when the US survived 25 hours of continuous attack from the British army at Fort McHenry in Baltimore American morale was very high and a British defeat was in sight. In September of 1814, the Treaty of Ghent was signed between British and America, this treaty created a new foreign policy between America and Britain, and returned all territory lost to either side before the war started. The time period during Monroe’s presidency is often known as the Era of Good Feelings. This period of time can be classified by the expansion of the Union into the South and Northwest. It can also be classified by the Depression of 1819 and America’s revival period soon after. A new immigration registration process was implemented in 1819 that cracked down harder on people who wanted to become American citizens. When the Indians moved out of Georgia, the Seminoles moved east into the Florida territory and the Creeks moved west. During this period, sectional differences grew between the north and the south. These differences were partially solved with the Missouri Compromise. American security was secured more effectively when the Monroe Doctrine was passed. James Fenimore Cooper and Washington Irving write Tales of a Traveller and The Pioneers which both depict life for the Indians and migrants during Monroe’s presidency. During this period, American literature started to grow. In addition, the1820s experienced the creation of new states and increase in migration. In 1817, the Erie Canal was beginning to be constructed in Albany, New York. It was designed to stimulate trade in the North and it served as a passageway from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. In 1819, the first American steamboat made a successful voyage across the Atlantic ocean to Europe. This was significant because it proved that industrialization in America had proved successful and trade and commerce could be transported faster and more
effectively than before. Also, in 1819, America suffered its first major economic depression following the war of 1812. Banks could not keep up and inflation soon followed. In addition, mortgages would not be paid, many people lost their homes and livelihoods, and agricultural prices increased while production decreased. This period of panic and depression was known as the Depression of 1819-1824. When America’s economy finally recovered, president Monroe enacted the Tariff of 1824. This tariff was designed to protect the industries of America against British products; These products included iron, wool, and cotton products. This period in American history was very prosperous. Beginning in 1818 with Illinois entering the Union as a free state and it continued through 1819 when Alabama entered the Union as a slave state. In 1818, the finishing pavements were made to the Cumberland Road otherwise known as the National Road. This road was significant because it paved a way for travelers to reach the west and create new settlements and trade routes back and forth between the North and the West. In 1819, the Adams-Onis treaty was signed between the US and Spain giving Florida to the US. This treaty also set a boundary line between America and what is now Mexico. In 1820, Missouri and Maine entered the Union as a result of the famous Missouri Compromise. Maine was admitted as a free state and Missouri was admitted as a slave state. In 1821, Stephen Austin ventured into Texas and founded the first American settlement in Mexican territory. This was significant because it allowed Americans to settle far west and it marked the beginning of the population dispute between Mexico and Texas. During Monroe’s presidency, many political disputes arose and were settled. In 1820, disputes over whether to add Missouri to the Union as a free or slave state arose. To solve these disputes, Henry Clay created the Missouri Compromise; this compromise admitted Maine into the Union as a free state and Missouri a slave state and permitted slavery north of the 36-degree border of Missouri. Also, at this time Americans were upset with Europeans coming into America and colonizing their land for themselves. To solve these discrepancies, president Monroe created the Monroe Doctrine in 1823. This doctrine stated that no Europeans could colonize American land for their own country, no outside power could interfere with American affairs, and it put strict rules governing the involvement of Europe. In 1819, the McCulloch versus Maryland case arose in Supreme Court. Maryland wanted to have the power to impose tax on congressional in-state banks. This case sparked a lot of controversy over whether Maryland had the right to do this or not since the banks were in state. Supreme Court justice John Marshall ruled that Maryland did not have the power to impose the tax on the banks and therefore McCulloch won his claim to not pay the imposed tax. During Monroe’s presidency in 1824, the Gibbons versus Ogden case also sparked controversy in the US. Ogden sued Gibbons for sailing his steamboat on waters that Ogden had claimed. The Supreme Court ruled that Ogden had no right to claim any water for his sole use and that waters were open to any company that wanted to sail on them. Politics during this time period not only strengthened the power of the Supreme Court, but they tried to protect the rights and security of all citizens residing in the US. In 1820, the government declared slave trade to and from America as piracy. This greatly pleased the north and angered the south for many reasons. The north approved of this declaration because not only did they believe slavery would be minimized, but if the south tried to maneuver around the law and they got caught, serious consequences would ensue. The south saw this as a threat to their economy and that the government was siding with the North. Although slavery only continued to grow despite the prohibition of slavery, the issue of slavery growing rapidly in America was starting to gain more recognition. In 1816, a group of Indians moved from Georgia to Florida, they were named the Seminoles. A coalition of runaway black slaves followed the Seminoles and lived among them to gain their freedom and escape their harsh lives. Commander Andrew Jackson gathered an army of 3,000 soldiers and headed to Florida in hopes to recapture the runaway slaves and punish the Seminoles for housing the slaves. In 1818, Jackson successfully captured the Spanish fort Pensacola and executed British traders that were supporting the Indians. Jackson failed, however, to drive the Seminoles away from their territory. This war is known as the First Seminole war because two more wars followed before the Seminoles were completely driven from their territory. In 1822, a former Caribbean and United States slave named Denmark Vesey, devised a slave rebellion to overthrow the white slaveholders. This rebellion was stopped quickly however and Vesey and his fellow plotters were executed in South Carolina. This rebellion was significant. This rebellion had the potential of being the largest in the history, if it was allowed to follow through. During Quincy Adam's presidency, American morale and pride was high as a result of the success of the Monroe presidency. In 1826 James Fenimore Cooper published the novel, The Last of the Mohicans, a famous American piece of literature. In 1828, Noah Webster, published the first American English Dictionary. This revolutionized literature because it was the first published dictionary of the English language and it helped improve literacy of Americans during the 1830s. Also, during Adams’ presidency, the American Temperance Society was formed. This was huge for American culture because the main objective of this group was reform. They wanted the abolition of slavery, more freedom for women and their rights, and the abstinence of the consumption of alcohol. This group wanted to make life for Americans pure and equal for all of its citizens. Also, at this time, the Freeman’s Journal was founded in 1827 in New York. This newspaper was very significant because it was the first free-black run newspaper in America at the time. In 1825, the Erie Canal was opened which served as a huge economic gain for America. This canal served as a passageway from the east to the west; manufactured goods could be transported to the newly acquired territories in the west on steamboats. This transformed America’s economy largely because it was the first waterway created that stretched from the Great Lakes in the west to the Atlantic Ocean in the East coast. America’s economy went through a tough period during Adams’ presidency. In May of 1828, the government enacted a tariff to help the industries of the north. They didn't want to have the north to compete with the goods of Europe so they taxed the importation of British goods harshly. This tax was so harsh that the British could not afford to buy and trade for cotton in the south. This hurt the economy of the south. Opposition to this tariff was significant and it damaged the South’s economy so much that it was named the Tariff of Abominations. Quincy Adams’ was in favor of Clay’s American System and wanted to make sure it was successful. The new tariff of 1828 combined with the end of the war of 1812 helped Adams make America more self-sufficient. During this time period, railroad construction gained a lot of popularity in America. In 1827, a railroad that stretched from Ohio to Baltimore, Maryland, became the first passenger railroad in the US. This was significant because now people had another effective way to get from the east to the Midwest. In 1829, the Delaware and Hudson Railroad Company tested a steam run locomotive that was beneficial to environment. In fact, the science of the day suggested that the coal emissions would not harm the air. Sectional differences between the North and the South started to increase. The dislike for each region grew out of the disagreement on the issue of slavery and the difference of how each economy was run. Speculation grew over the inauguration of president John Quincy Adams. At that time, not one of the 3 presidential candidates had won the majority of the votes. Although Jackson held the most votes at the end of the race, the decision was passed to Congress where Clay gave his votes to Adams, which won him presidency. Jackson and his supporters were furious at the decision. Thus, this incident is known as the Corrupt Bargain. During Adams’ presidency, his vice president John C. Calhoun was furious at the passage of the Tariff of 1828. He advocated for its removal because it affected the South’s economy negatively. Also, him, being the governor of South Carolina added to his disapproval of this tariff. The people of South Carolina demanded the right to nullify this tariff from their economy because it caused so much damage. This marked the beginning of the protests towards the Nullification Crisis that would occur 4 years later. Free African-Americans, women, and Native Americans did not have the right to vote during this time period. During Adam's presidency slavery took a bit of a hit. Since the Tariff of Abominations was passed, limiting the trade of cotton between the south and Europe, the demand for its immediate production decreased. Slavery was the key to the success of the South’s economy at this time. The demand for slaves never decreased and the ratio of the free population to slave people in the south was unbelievable. Although the need for slavery took a hit at this time, it was becoming a prized legacy in the South and a hated commodity for the north. Most of Quincy Adams’ dealings with war came through his experiences as Secretary of State for Monroe. He fought to keep calm and peaceful relation with Europe through America’s recovery stage after the war of 1812 and the panic of 1819. The passing of the Tariff of Abominations angered Britain because they had to pay more in order to trade and receive goods from America, but it was not enough to spark war and conflict. Although this period of time was peaceful from war internationally, there became increasing conflicts with the Latin Americans and Native Americans. Native Americans in the south causes uproars out of being forced off their territory in the South and the Latin Americans angered the American government by their increasing threats to help the abolition cause. American identity was in the midst of what was a very strong formation during this period. Jackson, a war hero, created an image that centered on strength from struggle, a message that appealed to American hearts. Most Americans wanted to believe that with this newly elected President there would be a unity and had hope for the “self-made man”. Many believed that this time would be a time of change in favor of the people. The collective idea was that the common man would have a government working on their side. People in America shunned the idea of a wealthy life style in favor of a more humble way of living: log cabins and humility were common accompaniments to the idea of a simpler man. Transcendentalism, the idea that organized religion and political parties corrupted individual purity, also began to emerge. Transcendentalists believed that an independent, self-reliant individual was the best version of an individual and that a true community could only be formed from individuals like that. Overall, America has just begun to embrace the idea that men in the great nation were supposed to be of humble backgrounds and always willing to work towards the best versions of themselves. This was a time of discovery in terms of identity. During this time period the nation was growing and the economy of America was beginning to change in various ways. The Bank of the United States had been established as part of an economic plan that Henry Clay had formed to create economic stability. The banks were created to maintain a single currency in the nation, making trade easier and a governmental funding system, rather than a private one. During the period of Jackson’s presidency, rechartering the Bank of the United States was a major issue. Jackson vetoed a bill written to re-charter the bank because he believed that bank privileges were being abused and monopolized in favor of the wealthy and foreign. The national bank had been established to balance out and help the economy. The unconstitutional view that Jackson had on the banks was not one shared across the nation. Instead, “pet banks” were established. These were basically state banks in which Jackson transferred money over which he monitored through the puppet treasurer. State banks now had to spend conservatively and what the bank was spending on was being taken into consideration more closely. The veto of the Maysville Road Bill, which stopped the building of a railroad that would connect Lexington, Kentucky to the Ohio River, was done so because of the question regarding whether that was to be federally funded. Market economy was the goal for the nation during this time period. There was a hope that small farmers and artisans would not be punched out by the growing industries, but this was foolish. Industry was growing during this period and land space was considered among the more precious of considerations to be taken into account when dealing with expanding a nation. Indian land was what was most sought after. The Indian Removal Act and the Trail of Tears called for countless Indians to migrate to Oklahoma, while the expansionist government took over about 100 million acres of land for the growing nation. This was mostly in the South region, particularly in Georgia, where gold had been struck. The North region of America was expanding industrially. Factories were being made and more and more women and men were working to aid the industry of the North. That being said, pollution was occurring in the United States. Factories run on coal most certainly emitted lots of pollution into the air, as work hours were long. Population growth occurred in the South, as the amount of African Americans necessary for the cotton industry grew. The slave population increased as the need for textile did in the North. The needs of both regions went hand in hand. American identity and politics went hand in hand during this time period. The growth of democracy was a direct result of the current government system that was put into place and the nation was seemingly more democratic. Although the popular part in the United States was democratic, this was also a time where various political parties rose. The Anti-Masonic Party and the Whig Party were among those risen. The Whigs were the opponents of the Democratic Party, with members such as the Illinois Senator Abraham Lincoln and Henry Clay speaking on their behalf. A difference in politics was becoming more obvious and the ideals that the parties held were proving to be an issue in terms of national unity. The Nullification Crisis of 1832 happened over a series of tariffs that Southerners believed were extremely high and only in favor of the Northern business ventures. A threat of nullification was not want Jackson wanted and this called the entire Democratic Party into question. President Jackson was acting as a tyrant in the eyes of the Southerners and opposing political parties were ready to seize the opportunity. The nation was divided in terms of understanding various parts of political platforms. Women were also being pulled further away from politics. The issue of Peggy Eaton and her alleged harlotry proved distracting to the entire Cabinet and lead to the decision that women were distracting in government and should be kept far away from it. Indians and slaves were still not considered citizens. Not much had changed. Slavery was still very present in the nation during this time period. Slaves were necessary for the Southern economy due to the fact that their labor was what basically produced the cotton in the South. This time period was one that remained calm in terms of the anti-slavery movement, at least it was for the most part. During the two years of Jackson’s presidency an issue regarding distribution of abolitionist propaganda and whether or not it should be distributed in the South. Many Southerners felt that it was very indecent and infuriating to have abolitionist propaganda in their regions. Irritated with the mail controversy, Jackson decided to pass a resolution devised by Henry L. Pinckney which stated that the dealings of slavery in States was not in the federal authority, according to the Constitution and that any petitions or referrals on slavery were not to be dealt with in the House. The final, and most memorable resolution perhaps, was that of the “gag rule”, which basically states that Congress “ought not” to deal with slavery in the nation’s capital (which was an issue at the time) nor was it to acknowledge slavery in the debates of the House. It was a what we would consider taboo, although the leaders of the nation very well knew that taking a neutral don’t ask don’t speak policy would spark controversy with their Southern brethren. America in a virtual time of peace during the Jacksonian era. In fact, the only real issue that required diplomatic resolution was the Nullification Crisis and the Indian Removal Act. The two events really tested the leader of the nation, in the sense that leadership and thought was required in order to maintain a stable nation. The Indian Removal Act called for thousands of Indians to move from their tribal lands to Oklahoma. In an attempt to maintain in their lands they learned and alphabet and adopted what they believed to be American ways, this assimilation was pointless. When the Five Civilized Tribes would not move, Jackson had to send in military forces to get the Indians to leave their land. The Nullification Crisis was a direct response to the Abominable Tariff of 1828. This was a tariff in which the South had to pay tariffs on good they did not produce, but also had to pay an ad valorem rate, or a percentage of what the goods cost on top of what the tariff cost. This was extremely upsetting to the South and John C. Calhoun, the former Vice President (former due to his resignation on account of various ideological differences between him and Jackson) was the spearhead in moving to nullify themselves from the Union. Fearing disunion, Jackson passed a bill allowing him to use militia forces to aid him in the persuasion of South Carolina to stay in the Union. At the end of this time period the nation was left in a hush-hush state it terms of slavery, the nation remained intact, and a depression due to the economic system America began this period in a depression that Jackson had created during his presidency with his pet bank system. The nation, however, had an identity and customs were beginning to form. Martin Van Buren was the first president “born under the American flag” and the America he now governed was beginning to enter what we now refer to as the Victorian period. Several things were changing that included the relationship between employees and employers and the role of women in the home and workplace. Before this time period employers and employees established a relationship in which the employer provided for the employee in an almost paternalistic manner. This manner was adopted by employers in the industrialized North, but in the slave-driven South it was considered a basic knowledge when one owned slaves. Slave owners would provide for their slaves and make sure that they were taken care of it terms of giving them a place to say and making sure they were able to perform basic functions. While this remained true in the South during this period, it did not stay this way in the North. As the market for trade began to competitively grow in the North, employers began to exercise their rights to fire and instill a very rigid program of “work discipline”. Middle class and lower class women also experienced a shift in occupation. A middle class woman now had a domestic obligation to remain at home and run the household. She was expected to be educated in household duties as well as formal education, which usually meant reading, writing, and speaking French. A woman in the lower class was expected to work and provide for her family in addition to what her husband was bringing in. There were also many immigrants in America and working as a servant was a common job for Irish and Blacks. Now as far as music and theater go, this was the age of Romanticism so composers such as Debussy and Schubert were composing for ballets and operas, capturing the hearts of all those able to listen to their music. Van Buren entered office during the same time the United States was experiencing its worst depression ever. Jackson had left the Union in quite a state with his pet bank system. Credit policies that state banks had instituted proved to be quite reckless, people were losing their money and banks were beginning to close. This was a time of crisis for America; this was the Panic of 1837. Not much was changed in terms of the Jacksonian bank policies. Van Buren, a Jeffersonian, believed that federal government should exercise a limited amount of power and not aid in the reestablishment of the American economy. Instead, an independent treasury was created and funds were taken from state banks and placed there. This did not aid the economic situation. Many faced loss on their property and a bit of anger swept over the nation. What angered the Americans more was the loss of property to Britain in a diplomatic dispute between the United States and Maine. Americans were settling on land claimed by both, the British were angry, Van Buren negotiated and signed a treaty and the land was given to Great Britain. Although this stopped the United States from going into war with Britain, Americans still felt angry at their loss of even more land. America wanted to expand its territories into further regions. This was achieved when the Indians were removed from their lands. Expansion towards the west was not so popular yet but America was slowly moving towards the promise of the West. In 1840, Captain Charles Wilkes claimed Antarctica for the United States of America. New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Virginia The politics of the day were very much democratic. Expansionists in America wanted to annex territories in Mexico and this became an issue. Annexation with Texas surely meant war with Mexico, to whom the territories belonged. Texas no longer wanted to belong to the Mexican government, whom they referred to as Barbarians. The president decided to ignore the pleas from Texas; he did not want to enter into war with a foreign nation. The Democrats were the most popular in government and the seemingly do well for the public attitude is what kept them there. Not many reforms were made. More and more immigrants were arriving, although the Irish and Blacks were predominantly the major race. More and more Irishmen were beginning to vote, realizing that universal male suffrage meant that they were allowed to vote as well. They had an interest in the government in their country. Van Buren’s lackluster presidency and seemingly lax attitude on the changes made to the Union ultimately led to the re-election of another. The issue of slavery in America had been resolved in the previous time period, with Jackson as the President. The “gag rule”, which basically banned slavery from being a topic in the House debates still remained during this time period. The President never mentioned slavery due to fear of disbandment of the Union. There were two major incidents in America that required diplomacy during this time period. The first was the issue with Great Britain and territory belonging to America and the second was the issue with the annexation of Texas and Mexico. The first incident occurred when Southern Canadians revolted against their British rulers and set a ship that contained an American, on fire. This triggered an American response and Van Buren was hesitant to send militia to Canada the event had subsided. In response to this Congress passed a neutrality act, which prevented future borderland excursions and ultimately smoothed out the situation. The second issue involving Britain occurred in Aroostook Valley, where timber lay that had never been touched. Both countries claimed the land and when things became heated the President and Henry Fox, the British minister, called off all claims on the land. The state of main was highly upset and threatened to use their militia because their rights had not been looked after. Van Buren sent Winfield Scott to defuse the situation and when the threats came again Van Buren acquired 10 million dollars and mobilization of a militia numbering 50 thousand in response to the Maine. The next opportunity was Mexico. Believing that a country should not annex what belongs to another sovereign, America did not want to allow Texas into the nation. This highly upset the expansionists, but was done to keep America out of what Mexico would take as a sign to initiate war. As America changed its governing head, there were new changes in one category in particular: women’s fashion. At the end of the previous decade, dresses had conical skirts and sleeves that reached the elbows. Hairstyles were strict in the sense that hair remained close to the scalp. Pleats and fabric no longer covered the bust and shoulders, but were put together to form a triangle from the shoulders to the waist. Evening dresses began to show shoulders, shawls were back in and carrying a bag (more like a clutch) was a trend that would carry out to present day. Hairstyles were also beginning to change. The skirts of dresses were now in a style called bell and were much simpler than their predecessors. The “spaniel” was a hairstyle in which women parted their hair down the middle and allowed curls to hang on both sides of their faces. The back part of the hair was styled in whichever manner the woman chose to do so. This was a very common Victorian hairstyle. America was beginning to embrace customs of their own as they felt more and more like a nation. America was under a system in which national bonds had been created in an attempt to somewhat better the economic depression and were beginning to become stable. Americans had not expanded and rejected the idea of annexing Texas in to the union. Expansion was not changed. America remained in the same state that it had been while Van Buren was president. William Henry Harrison was the first Whig President to govern the United States of America. The Whig Party had formed as an anti-Jackson group that called themselves Whigs after the British party who opposed the monarchy. They believed that Jackson was a tyrant king and often referred to him and King Andrew the First. During Harrison’s campaign against Van Buren, the Whigs passed out free cider in containers that were log cabin themed and sang songs with the people at barbeques and bonfires that were hosted in the name of the Whig ticket. Harrison won the presidency due to the fact that he could relate to the common man and was simple in his ways, unlike Van Buren who the people viewed as an aristocrat wannabe. The slavery situation was unchanged during the days Harrison was president. There was no war and diplomacy during the time Harrison was president. This time period in presidency was significant for American culture in the sense that many of the modern works and ideas that we use and appreciate were established in this time period. Edgar Allen Poe is beginning to publish his works of literature, earning one hundred dollars worth of prize money for publishing his story “The Gold Bug” in a local newspaper. This was also a time of industrial breakthrough: Charles Goodyear receives the patent for vulcanization, the process in which rubber is made strong. On May 24, 1844, Samuel B. Morse, inventor of the telegraph, sends the first telegraph over the first telegraph line, connecting Baltimore and Washington. The first minstrel show, a variety show in which white people wore black masks, was performed at the Bowery Amphitheatre in New York. This period of time not only introduced variety in activities but was also a time of prosperity and discovery in America. Although this was a different age than when Jackson had been president, the sentiments on having a national bank had not changed. Tyler vetoed a bill that would reinstate the national bank and the state banks still remained. The Whig party was highly upset at this and kicked Tyler out of their party. Two more bills were vetoed by the President that proposed high tariffs and another known as the Distribution Bill that would give money earned in selling public lands to states for internal improvements. Texas was annexed into the Union during this period in an attempt to make good with the Whig party and to please the expansionists in America. Texas had gained its independence from Mexico five years prior to Tyler’s presidency but Mexico refused to recognize this. Tyler wanted respect once his term was over so he decided that the annexation of Texas would be one way to gain this. Texas was annexed into the United States in 1845. Many states were also beginning to head west on the Oregon Trails in wagons. This migration of people was significant because populations would increase and America now had frontier men! Some of the major issues in this time period involved the attitudes that people had on the decisions that the President was making. One of these opinion-provoking matters was the annexation of Texas. Gaining more land for the Union was not something the people of the United States was not opposed to, but choosing John C. Calhoun to figurehead this was a mistake that proved crucial in Tyler’s aftermath. John C. Calhoun was a Southern gentleman and slave owner who no doubt would advocate for Texas to be pro-slavery. Abolitionists were very threatened by this. During this time period, there was a fear of having yet another slave state enter the Union. The question as to whether Texas would be a slave state or a free one made many abolitionists uneasy. The arguments over slavery had calmed down during this time period but with more land being admitted, the fear of losing the peace-time was real. America experienced a shift in Presidents in a short amount of time. The new president wanted to have more land added to the nation and a threat of war was imminent. Texas was admitted into the union on March 1st, 1845 even though Mexico believed that the territory belonged to them. This would eventually lead to the Mexican-American War. New boundaries were also being established. An American-Canadian border had been established east of the Rocky Mountains. America did not experience any real problems during this presidency; those were yet to come. This time period was perhaps one of the more eventful time periods in American history. More and more reforms were being made in the name of the people; America was slowly but surely becoming a place of opportunity for all kinds of people living there. This proved especially true when speaking on the reforms made by Dorothea Dix, a woman dedicated to improving the care of the mentally ill. Dix dedicated her life to these reforms and after much investigation and effort she was able to write legislation establishing the first mental hospital in Illinois. Her efforts did not end there. Mental care facilities appeared in North Carolina and later, the first mental hospital in Pennsylvania. Another movement that proved revolutionary in entertainment in America, was temperance. The temperance movement was set on eliminating alcohol in the work place and ultimately limiting the sales of alcohol. Susan B. Anthony was just beginning to empower the movement at the end of this time period. Temperance was an obvious outrage to those who liked to drink but it also gave way to a new form of entertainment that had formerly been quite stagnant during this time period: theatre was taken up again. The anger that citizens felt towards the movement were acted out in plays and poems were written to express emotion felt about it. People also inhabited the San Francisco region, being that gold had been found there. The people lived in squalor and had syphilis but were excited to find gold. This was a new chapter in American history. Perhaps one of the most pivotal changes America experienced as a nation in the 19th Century was the establishment of the Independent Treasury. This was created in 1846 and was meant to keep public revenues in the treasury and various sub treasuries but were to be kept separate from the banking and financial systems of the nation. The Independent Treasury was supposed to pay its own funds and would only except funds from the government that were to be written on treasury notes or paid species. This new system was effective enough to earn Polk the respect of completing exactly what he said he would do. Another economic transformation was the Walker Tariff of 1846. This tariff dropped rates towards revenue only levels and established a set rate, rather than a percentage of individual goods (ad valorem). Various products were also duty-free. This foreign economic policy was opposed my most Northerners but the Southern cotton farmers (which this mostly affected) were very supportive of the reform that reversed the Abominable Tariff of 1828. Perhaps one of the most important acquisitions of lands the United States ever gained were the territories of Texas, California, and what was called Oregon Country. This increased the amount of land the United States had and was a direct result of President Polk’s belief in Manifest Destiny, or the God-willed expansion of the United States of America. Gaining territory from Mexico was exactly what the United States needed to yet again prove itself to the world. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo gave the United States California, the Rio Grande boundary of Texas, and a very large territory comprised of present-day Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. America was now larger and more people were moving out west. Oregon territory was also claimed. President Polk negotiated the boundary between Canada and the United States of America in order to cool things down with the British. The negotiations state that above the 49th parallel Canadian land resides and everything beneath it is American land. Not only did they acquire new land, inhabitants were moving west, rapidly increasing the populations in California. The reason for this was gold. Miners had struck gold in 1849 and San Francisco was the place to be. Florida, Texas, Wisconsin and Iowa also become states in this time period. The Mexican-American War was a true test of government, especially since Mexican troops outnumbered the Americans. The reason for going to war was to fulfill manifest destiny and in the end that it was happened. A true politician, Polk engaged in a battle to gain respect for his nation. Polk was a president with very specific goals to attain and that he did. The Mexican-War ended in compromise and one of the very important parts of this compromise was the terms on which said compromise was made. Mexico was to give the U.S. ownership of the lands that they wanted and the U.S was supposed to pay 15 million dollars worth of damage as well as an extra 3.25 million for the claims on American citizens. The treaty then gave the residents of the negotiate areas the choice to become U.S. citizens with full rights, or to remain Mexican citizens. This was an assimilation of to very different cultures. Slavery was a big issue during this period especially since land was being added. Many abolitionists and people for slavery were very concerned that the land being added would be slave lands. They had reason to worry, being that Polk was a Democrat who held many of the same values as Andrew Jackson. This was not the case. Polk did not believe that any territory gained from Mexico should be involved with slavery, which is why the Wilmot Proviso was drawn up in 1846. The Wilmot Proviso basically stated that any territory gained from Mexico would be slave-free. This put abolitionists at rest and kept the country at peace in the sense of slavery. This was a time of war. Mexico and America were neck in neck, neither one of them willing to surrender land that they believed should belong to them. Many Americans did not support this war, simply because they did see the point. For many, manifest destiny was not a good enough reason to have men die. Polk decided that the war was worth fighting for and in the end he gained much land. The war began with the Americans clinging to every chance they got, being that they were unprepared and outnumbered. Strategy on both sides ultimately wore them out and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was devised. Both nations came to terms with conditions and the war was over. This was an incredible win for the United States. Geometric diplomacy was also present in this period when negotiating the boundaries for the Oregon territory. Negotiating with foreign lands, Polk was able to persuade the British into giving them the land. These were very peaceful negotiations. During this time in America, literature of all sorts was beginning to emerge. Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter was published and people were ready to read on the scandal that the author wrote about. The way that folks dressed was not so different from how they normally dressed, but people were beginning to have a very particular type of wardrobe for various activities. Riding, dinner, and day dresses were becoming more and more popular in the United States. Overall the culture did not receive a really big shock but was progressing. Although the President was on the Whig Party ticket, he did not believe that America should be a nation with a national bank. The bank system remained as it was. This time period was not really focused on the dealings of money, but more with the states that would be admitted into the Union and how their economies would affect the United States of America. One of the most important events during this time period was the Compromise of 1850. This was a compromise that stated that California was able to join the Union as a free state, but also amended the Fugitive Slave Act, making the terms more stringent. America expanded as it now had New Mexico and California. Politics and Citizenship was a very prominent theme during this year of new presidency. The political groups that stood out the most during this time period were the Whigs and the Democrats. The Whigs were hoping that Taylor would help them to make Whig advances in the nation but Taylor’s ideals were not completely opposing those of the Democrats. In fact, Taylor considered himself a Jeffersonian-Democrat. Taylor worked closely with Congress to develop the Compromise of 1850, which expanded the United States. Slavery was an issue in this time period because the Fugitive Slave Act and the admittance of California into the Union. The big issue here was that California was applying for statehood to be a free state, when the balance between free and slave states had already been equally kept. This was a very frightening thing for abolitionists, being that California was so large. Eventually the Compromise of 1850 was enacted, which allowed California to enter the Union as a free state, but it also amended the Fugitive Slave Act. The Fugitive Slave Act was an act that forced runaway slaves, who were essentially free living in the North, to come back to their masters. The terms on this law became strict in the Compromise of 1850, so that the South would be kept at rest. Taylor did have to exercise diplomatic qualities in this time period due to the fact that he was dealing with crisis in his nation as well as some issues with other nations. Taylor negotiated the terms in the Compromise of 1850, which eventually settled the nation into a somewhat time of peace. Taylor also had to defuse a situation that involved Britain and making a canal South America. The Unites States wanted to make a canal but did not realize that Britain had already made claims on this canal, set to be made in Nicaragua, being that Honduras neighbored this place. In the end, the United States was able to avoid war due to the fact that both countries relinquished all claims on the land. 1789-1797 Federalist Federalist 1797-1801 1801-1809 Demo-Republican 1809-1817 Republican 1817-1825
Republican 1825-1829
National Republican 1829-1837
Democrat 1837-1841
Democrat 1841
Whig 1841-1845
Whig 1845-1849
Democrat 1849-1850
Whig 1850-1853
Whig 1853-1857
Democrat 1857-1861
Democrat 1861-1865
Republican 1865-1869
Republican 1869-1877
Republican Republican Motherhood
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